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Answered: - Living Donor Organ Transplantation IMA STUDENT INDIANA WESLEYAN

I have to find a topic to make a portfolio for my Health care Admin class. The attachment I posted is how the teacher wants it to be. I wanted to know if someone can help.

Living Donor Organ









What are the ethical considerations?




Ross?s Ethics





Rawls?s Theory of Justice





Duties of Beneficence: helping to


better the condition of others





Everyone has equal right to equal


basic liberties





Duties of Non-maleficence: avoiding


or preventing injury and harm to







Natural duty to help others in need or


in jeopardy





A person has the right to determine


what risks he is willing to take with


his own life and health





Voluntary consent required







We must learn the facts of the case


and explore the possible


consequences of our actions


We must guide our actions by what is


right, rather than by what is useful



(Munson, 2009, p. 876-885)



What are the moral responsibilities in


this situation?




Act for the benefit of others





Act in a way to bring about the greatest benefit and least


amount of harm





Our actions are the result of our own choices and decisions


based on our own moral values and beliefs





?Above all, do no harm?



(Munson, 2009, p. 891-904)






My command is this: Love each


other as I have loved you. Greater


love has no one than this, that he


lay down his life for his friends.


JOHN 15:12-13



It is an act of love to give an organ so that someone else


might live or experience an improvement in his life. Jesus


gave sacrificially and we should follow His example.






Patient Rights


Informed Consent:



Your Rights:



The informed consent process should


help you understand all aspects of


the donation process, including the


risks and benefits. Your consent to


become a donor is completely


voluntary. You should never feel


pressured to become a donor. You


have the right to delay or stop the


donation process at any time.



Living donation: Information you need to know (2014,


August 21). Retrieved from





You have the right to be informed about the


care you will receive





You have the right to make decisions about


your care





You have the right to give free and informed


consent to be an organ donor





You have the right to receive full disclosure of


the risks, alternatives, and outcomes





You have the right to be listened to







You have the moral and legal rights to privacy



Know your rights (2014, August 21) Retrieved from





Medical Research






A variety of strategies are being


researched and developed to


help the immune system accept


organ transplants





Researchers are exploring how to


grow new organs from stem cells





Clinical Trials for Extracorporeal


Liver Assist System (ELAD)



Drug researchers are trying ways


to block or deplete the genes


that attack donor organs



McClellan, M. (2003). Organ and tissue transplants: Medical miracles and challenges. Berkeley Heights, NJ:





Advanced Directives


Advanced directives are written, legal instructions regarding your


preferences for medical care if you are unable to make decisions


for yourself. Advance directives guide choices for doctors and


caregivers if you are terminally ill, seriously injured, in a coma, or


near the end of life.




Do Not Resuscitate Order (DNR)





Living Will





Durable Healthcare Power of Attorney (DHCPOA)



?As iron sharpens iron, so one person


sharpens another? Prov 27:17 (NIV)



It is important to seek out godly people to consider your


decisions with. Others in the body of Christ may see


where we are blind.



Reproductive Decisions




Pregnancy in post-transplant patients is common





Increased risk for preeclampsia, hypertension, and renal







Increased risk for low birth weight



(Surti, Tan, & Saab, 2008)



Medical Technology





Stem Cell therapies


Tissue Regeneration


3-D printing of organs


(Sarfarti, 2014) (Wong, 2013) (?Miniature human liver,? 2013) (Akhter, Ali Aziz, & Al Ajlan,





End of Life Care




Palliative Care





Pain Control





Anxiety Control





Depression control





Withdrawal of nutrition and fluids





Advance Directives



(Kahn, Lazarus, & Owens, 2003) (Wright, Pape, Ross, Campbell, & Bowman, 2007) (Munson, 2012, p. 582-583)



Spiritual Care





has been swallowed up in victory.? ?Where, O death, is your


victory? Where, O death, is your sting?? The sting of death is sin,


and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God! He gives us


the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ? (1 Cor. 15:54-57)




What are your religious and spiritual needs?





Clergy involvement





We are made in God?s image; therefore all human life, irrespective of an individual?s


ability or gifts, is precious and holy.



(Engelhardt & Smith, 2005)



(Kahn, Lazarus, & Owens, 2003)



Duty To Treat


Four Pillars of the


Hippocratic Oath:






















(Voors, 2000, p. 642-643)



Individual Responsibility





Keep yourself as healthy as possible





Follow all pre-op and post-op instructions





Adhere to treatment plans





Take your medication as prescribed





Schedule and keep all follow up appointments



(Estelle-Brazzell Horton, 2014)



The United Network for Organ




UNOS is responsible for transplant organ distribution in the U.S. UNOS


oversees the allocation of many different types of transplants, including


liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, lung, and cornea.




Receive data from hospitals and medical centers regarding adults and


children who need organ transplants





Criteria have been developed to ensure that all people on the waiting


list are judged fairly as to the severity of their illness and the urgency


of receiving a transplant





People in most urgent need are placed highest on waiting list and are


given first priority



(Liver Transplantation, n.d.)






From everyone who has been


given much, much will be


demanded; and from the one


who has been entrusted with


much, much more will be asked.










Akhter, J., Ali Aziz, A., & Al Ajlan, A. (2011). Stem cells and liver disease. Internet Journal of Medical Update, 6(2), p. 6975. Retrieved from


Engelhardt H. T. , & Smith A. (2005). End-of-life: The traditional Christian view. Retrieved on September 14, 2014 from


Estelle-Brazzell Horton, S. (2014). What is personal health responsibility? ABNF Journal, 25(1), 5-9. Retrieved from


Freund, L. (2010). Creating a culture of accountability. Ethics is the key to sharing healthcare stewardship. Healthcare


Executive, 25(1), 30. Retrieved from


Kahn, M., Lazarus, C., & Owens, D. (2003). Allowing patients to die: Practical, ethical, and religious concerns. Journal of


clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 21(15), 3000-3002. Retrieved from


Know your rights (2014, August 21) Retrieved from


Liver transplant (n.d.). Retrieved from


Living donation: Information you need to know (2014, August 21). Retrieved from



McClellan, M. (2003). Organ and tissue transplants: Medical miracles and challenges. Berkeley Heights, NJ:




Miniature human liver grown from stem cells: Tissue implanted in mice became functioning organ hope for


treatments to end reliance on donors (2013, July4). Guardian, p. 14. Retrieved from


Munson, R. (2012). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in Bioethics. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.


Sarfati, J. (2014, July 10). Stem cells and Genesis. Retrieved on August 29, 2014 from


Surti, B., Tan, J., & Saab, S. (2008). Pregnancy and liver transplantation. Liver International, 28(9), 12001206. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01871.x


Voors, M. (2000). The duty to treat: Ethics and HIV/AIDS. Physiotherapy, 86(12), 640-644. Retrieved from


Wong, S. C. (2013). Stem cells news update: A personal perspective. Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics,


16(2), 7-15. doi:10.2478/bjmg-2013-0025




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