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Answered: - Week 2 Lectures Notes: Attribution, Fundamental Attribution

Hi Fanicelynn, below are some question I need answered.? I also attached lecture notes to assist.? Let me know if you have any concern.? I need back by 25 Mar.

Week 2: Discussion - Implicit Association Test


After reading this week's lecture notes, answer the following questions:

  1. 1.What are your reactions to your IAT results?
  2. 2. Is there anything that surprised you?
  3. 3. Do you think the unconscious use of stereotypes explain the results?
  4. 4. Do these results suggest anything about the use of stereotypes when observing and meeting people in everyday interactions?
  5. 5. Is there anything else from this week's readings and lecture that you'd like to discuss?

Make sure that you answer all of the questions. I find that it helps to insert the question into the response section to ensure that you have completed all of the questions.?Make sure to apply the material to real life and link your comments to the lecture material. Add links to articles that you have found which add to the conversation.

Week 2 ? Lectures Notes: Attribution, Fundamental


Attribution Error, Stereotyping and Self?fulfilling







When we started our class, I asked you to look up your names and their various meanings in the


post your bios discussion forum to determine how closely your name described who you were. It was


a fun exercise but what if your name impacted your success in life? In an article titled "Racial Bias in


Hiring (Links to an external site.)" a study performed by Marianne Bertrand, Associate Professor of


Economics at the University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, and Sendhil Mullainathan of


Massachusetts Institute of Technology, they found this may indeed be the case.


Mullainathan provides an update and some interesting insights from his perspective on what has or


has not changed since the initial study was performed in his article titled "Racial Bias, Even When We


Have Good Intentions (Links to an external site.)." He also includes several additional studies around


racial bias which are informative.


They performed a study on corporate hiring decisions using resumes that were identical except for


the names of the job candidates. Callback rates to job candidates were different depending on


whether or not the applicant had a Black?sounding name or a White?sounding name. This


discrimination was found across job classifications, whether the job was at a low?skilled janitorial


level, the managerial level or at the high skilled vice presidential level.


Brett Arends, in a 11/4/14 Fortune magazine article titled, "In hiring racial bias is still a problem. But not


always for the reasons you think, (Links to an external site.)" suggests that things have not changed


since the University of Chicago study was performed. Arends describes an updated version of the


Chicago study performed by John Nunley, economic professor at the University of Wisconsin, Adam


Pugh at CUNA Mutual Group in Madison, Wisconsin, Nicholas Romero, an economics professor at


the University of Pennsylvania, and Richard Seals, an economics professor at Auburn University in


Alabama in an attempt to see what kind of job market more recent graduates might face. Sadly, the


results were the same. Nunley indicates "Young African?Americans still face persistent


discrimination in the job market, and it is not tied to socioeconomic status, a lack of a degree, or


other factors. Overall, black applicants were invited in for interviews 15.2% of the time, while white


applicants received invitations 18% of the time. To put it another way, African?Americans were 16%


less likely to get called in for an interview."


What do they suggest might be the reason for this discriminatory behavior? Interestingly enough the


type of position being hired for had an impact on whether candidates with a Black sounding name


were called back for an interview. Hiring organizations were concerned that their customers might be


prejudiced and be "put off" by seeing a non?White person behind a sales counter and take their


business elsewhere. Yet when the position was for a manager, coordinator, or administrator the


callback rate for African Americans was almost the same as for Whites.


What are we to make of this? How are we to use this information? We all come from different


backgrounds and have different life experiences and levels of exposure to people who are different


from us. The media of television, literature and music also determine the filter through which we



assess others. Everyone has biases, so don't beat yourself up just yet. The question is what do you


do with or about your biases? I would suggest that we use this knowledge to train ourselves and


others not to succumb to them. But first you have to be aware of them. Author Malcolm Gladwell's


book Blink introduces us to the notion that indeed we all assess people, places, and things in the


blink of an eye. It is subconscious, we are not even aware of it and this has ramifications in the


workplace where diversity is sought and valued and in society which is becoming more diverse every




Click here (Links to an external site.) to take the 10 minute Implicit Association Test (IAT) for both


race and gender to determine what your unconscious bias is towards various races and the sexes.


Be prepared to comment in the discussion board.


I frequently have students tell me that they are not prejudiced and yet their IAT scores indicate that


they have certain biases. They take the test again to see of they can change their score the second


or third time around. I have taken this test several times over the years and my scores have never




Videos on stereotyping, self?fulfilling prophecy, ladder of inference, and fundamental


attribution error.


Stereotyping and self?fulfilling prophecy are demonstrated in this 6?minute video:


The Ladder of Inference is demonstrated in this 5?minute video:


This 7?minute video provides information on fundamental attribution error:



Think about an example, either from personal experience or hearsay, in which perception and


attribution played a part. Think about how the concept of fundamental attribution error displayed in


the University of Chicago study and other lecture videos and articles. Does self?fulfilling prophecy


come into play as well? If so how?






We have discussed some of the issues that people who are not White face in the work world. What


issues do women encounter? The U.S. Department of Labor reports that 57% of women 16 years


and over participated in the workforce in 2014 versus 69.2% of men. Yet the non?profit American


Association of University Women (AAUW), indicates that in 2013 full?time, year?round female


workers were paid 78% of what their male counterparts were paid. This gap in earnings is


experienced in nearly every occupation, increases with age, is not reduced by increased education


and exists whether one has children or not. You may find full details on AAUW's study of these issues


can be found here (Links to an external site.) and the U.S. Department of Labor statistics may be found


here. (Links to an external site.)


Clearly women are also experiencing advancement difficulties as well. In a 7/12/12 Center for


American Progress article, "The Top Ten Economic Facts of Diversity in the Workplace (Links to an


external site.)" by Sophia Kerby and Crosby Burns, several benefits of having a diverse workforce


are enumerated. They include greater economic growth, a more qualified workforce, reduced


employee turnover, greater innovation and increased creativity. Kerby and Burns cite a 4/2011,



McKinsey & Company study "Unlocking the full potential in the U.S economy (Links to an external site.)"


by Joanna Barsh and Lareina Yee which indicates "The reasons why women choose to remain at


their current level or move on to another organization?despite their unflagging confidence and


desire to advance?include: lack of role models, exclusion from the informal networks, not having a


sponsor in upper management to create opportunities."


These factors play a role in the lack of people who are not White in organizations as well. Sheryl


Sandberg, COO Facebook, in her 2010 TED Talk titled "Why We Have Too Few Women Leaders (Links


to an external site.)", identified three things women need to do in order to stay in the workforce: 1. Sit


at the table. 2. Make your partner a real partner. 3. Don't leave before you leave.


Attribution theory, the fundamental attribution error, stereotyping and self?fulfilling prophecy all play a


role in how we view ourselves and others. Selective perception, that is selecting the information that


supports one's viewpoint while discounting information that doesn't support that viewpoint, can lead


to problems in the workplace. I look forward to our discussions this week and hearing your thoughts


on these issues.




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