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Answered: - Week 2 Lectures Notes: Attribution, Fundamental Attribution


Hi Fanicelynn, below are some question I need answered.? I also attached lecture notes to assist.? Let me know if you have any concern.? I need back by 25 Mar.

Week 2: Discussion - Implicit Association Test

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After reading this week's lecture notes, answer the following questions:

  1. 1.What are your reactions to your IAT results?
  2. 2. Is there anything that surprised you?
  3. 3. Do you think the unconscious use of stereotypes explain the results?
  4. 4. Do these results suggest anything about the use of stereotypes when observing and meeting people in everyday interactions?
  5. 5. Is there anything else from this week's readings and lecture that you'd like to discuss?

Make sure that you answer all of the questions. I find that it helps to insert the question into the response section to ensure that you have completed all of the questions.?Make sure to apply the material to real life and link your comments to the lecture material. Add links to articles that you have found which add to the conversation.



Week 2 ? Lectures Notes: Attribution, Fundamental

 

Attribution Error, Stereotyping and Self?fulfilling

 

Prophecy

 

Bias

 


 

When we started our class, I asked you to look up your names and their various meanings in the

 

post your bios discussion forum to determine how closely your name described who you were. It was

 

a fun exercise but what if your name impacted your success in life? In an article titled "Racial Bias in

 

Hiring (Links to an external site.)" a study performed by Marianne Bertrand, Associate Professor of

 

Economics at the University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, and Sendhil Mullainathan of

 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, they found this may indeed be the case.

 

Mullainathan provides an update and some interesting insights from his perspective on what has or

 

has not changed since the initial study was performed in his article titled "Racial Bias, Even When We

 

Have Good Intentions (Links to an external site.)." He also includes several additional studies around

 

racial bias which are informative.

 

They performed a study on corporate hiring decisions using resumes that were identical except for

 

the names of the job candidates. Callback rates to job candidates were different depending on

 

whether or not the applicant had a Black?sounding name or a White?sounding name. This

 

discrimination was found across job classifications, whether the job was at a low?skilled janitorial

 

level, the managerial level or at the high skilled vice presidential level.

 

Brett Arends, in a 11/4/14 Fortune magazine article titled, "In hiring racial bias is still a problem. But not

 

always for the reasons you think, (Links to an external site.)" suggests that things have not changed

 

since the University of Chicago study was performed. Arends describes an updated version of the

 

Chicago study performed by John Nunley, economic professor at the University of Wisconsin, Adam

 

Pugh at CUNA Mutual Group in Madison, Wisconsin, Nicholas Romero, an economics professor at

 

the University of Pennsylvania, and Richard Seals, an economics professor at Auburn University in

 

Alabama in an attempt to see what kind of job market more recent graduates might face. Sadly, the

 

results were the same. Nunley indicates "Young African?Americans still face persistent

 

discrimination in the job market, and it is not tied to socioeconomic status, a lack of a degree, or

 

other factors. Overall, black applicants were invited in for interviews 15.2% of the time, while white

 

applicants received invitations 18% of the time. To put it another way, African?Americans were 16%

 

less likely to get called in for an interview."

 

What do they suggest might be the reason for this discriminatory behavior? Interestingly enough the

 

type of position being hired for had an impact on whether candidates with a Black sounding name

 

were called back for an interview. Hiring organizations were concerned that their customers might be

 

prejudiced and be "put off" by seeing a non?White person behind a sales counter and take their

 

business elsewhere. Yet when the position was for a manager, coordinator, or administrator the

 

callback rate for African Americans was almost the same as for Whites.

 

What are we to make of this? How are we to use this information? We all come from different

 

backgrounds and have different life experiences and levels of exposure to people who are different

 

from us. The media of television, literature and music also determine the filter through which we

 


 

assess others. Everyone has biases, so don't beat yourself up just yet. The question is what do you

 

do with or about your biases? I would suggest that we use this knowledge to train ourselves and

 

others not to succumb to them. But first you have to be aware of them. Author Malcolm Gladwell's

 

book Blink introduces us to the notion that indeed we all assess people, places, and things in the

 

blink of an eye. It is subconscious, we are not even aware of it and this has ramifications in the

 

workplace where diversity is sought and valued and in society which is becoming more diverse every

 

year.

 

Click here (Links to an external site.) to take the 10 minute Implicit Association Test (IAT) for both

 

race and gender to determine what your unconscious bias is towards various races and the sexes.

 

Be prepared to comment in the discussion board.

 

I frequently have students tell me that they are not prejudiced and yet their IAT scores indicate that

 

they have certain biases. They take the test again to see of they can change their score the second

 

or third time around. I have taken this test several times over the years and my scores have never

 

varied.

 

Videos on stereotyping, self?fulfilling prophecy, ladder of inference, and fundamental

 

attribution error.

 

Stereotyping and self?fulfilling prophecy are demonstrated in this 6?minute video:

 

The Ladder of Inference is demonstrated in this 5?minute video:

 

This 7?minute video provides information on fundamental attribution error:

 


 

Think about an example, either from personal experience or hearsay, in which perception and

 

attribution played a part. Think about how the concept of fundamental attribution error displayed in

 

the University of Chicago study and other lecture videos and articles. Does self?fulfilling prophecy

 

come into play as well? If so how?

 


 

Gender

 


 

We have discussed some of the issues that people who are not White face in the work world. What

 

issues do women encounter? The U.S. Department of Labor reports that 57% of women 16 years

 

and over participated in the workforce in 2014 versus 69.2% of men. Yet the non?profit American

 

Association of University Women (AAUW), indicates that in 2013 full?time, year?round female

 

workers were paid 78% of what their male counterparts were paid. This gap in earnings is

 

experienced in nearly every occupation, increases with age, is not reduced by increased education

 

and exists whether one has children or not. You may find full details on AAUW's study of these issues

 

can be found here (Links to an external site.) and the U.S. Department of Labor statistics may be found

 

here. (Links to an external site.)

 

Clearly women are also experiencing advancement difficulties as well. In a 7/12/12 Center for

 

American Progress article, "The Top Ten Economic Facts of Diversity in the Workplace (Links to an

 

external site.)" by Sophia Kerby and Crosby Burns, several benefits of having a diverse workforce

 

are enumerated. They include greater economic growth, a more qualified workforce, reduced

 

employee turnover, greater innovation and increased creativity. Kerby and Burns cite a 4/2011,

 


 

McKinsey & Company study "Unlocking the full potential in the U.S economy (Links to an external site.)"

 

by Joanna Barsh and Lareina Yee which indicates "The reasons why women choose to remain at

 

their current level or move on to another organization?despite their unflagging confidence and

 

desire to advance?include: lack of role models, exclusion from the informal networks, not having a

 

sponsor in upper management to create opportunities."

 

These factors play a role in the lack of people who are not White in organizations as well. Sheryl

 

Sandberg, COO Facebook, in her 2010 TED Talk titled "Why We Have Too Few Women Leaders (Links

 

to an external site.)", identified three things women need to do in order to stay in the workforce: 1. Sit

 

at the table. 2. Make your partner a real partner. 3. Don't leave before you leave.

 

Attribution theory, the fundamental attribution error, stereotyping and self?fulfilling prophecy all play a

 

role in how we view ourselves and others. Selective perception, that is selecting the information that

 

supports one's viewpoint while discounting information that doesn't support that viewpoint, can lead

 

to problems in the workplace. I look forward to our discussions this week and hearing your thoughts

 

on these issues.

 


 

 


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