1) What is the difference between connectionless demultiplexing and connection-oriented demultiplexing?
2)?UDP and TCP use 1s complement for their checksums. Suppose you have the following three 8-bit bytes: 11011011, 01011001, 01100110. What is the 1?s complement of the sum of these 8-bit bytes? (Note that although UDP and TCP use 16-bit words in computing the checksum, for this problem you are being asked to consider 8-bit sums.) Show all work. Why is it that UDP takes the 1?s complement of the sum; that is, why not just use the sum? With the 1s complement scheme, how does the receiver detect errors? Is it possible that a 1-bit error will go undetected? How about a 2-bit error?
3)?Describe in detail the purpose of the following techniques used in TCP: (a) ACK, (b)sequence number, (c) timeout
4)?Why is three-way handshake used in TCP connection establishment, not two-way?
5)?Describe the difference between congestion control and flow control.
6)?Describe in detail the slow start, congestion avoidance, and fast recovery stages used inTCP design. Specify the transition conditions among these stages.
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