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(Answered)-Series of questions I need explained/ Answered to prepare for my


Series of questions I need explained/ Answered to prepare for my final.


STUDY QUESTIONS (Reminder: study questions will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam. )


The adult C-fern sporophyte is responsible for producing spores.?

What is the name of the specific structure on the adult sporophyte in which spore production takes place?? Is the spore-producing structure haploid or diploid?

Does every cell on the sporophyte individual have the capability of producing spores?? If so, why?? If not, which cells are capable of producing spores??

By which cellular process (mitosis or meiosis) are spores produced?? Why??

Are spores haploid or diploid?

What is the tapetum?? Why is it necessary with respect to spore production and maturation?

What is the difference between a spore and a tetrad?

The wet, muddy substrate in which C-fern naturally grows also supports large populations of bacteria and fungi.? Many bacteria and fungi are disease-causers and decomposers (they produce chemicals that damage or destroy the cells of other living organisms).? What structural feature and chemical component of that feature allow the C-fern spore to not be destroyed in this hostile environment?


STUDY QUESTIONS. (Reminder: study questions will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam. )

What is meant by the phrase, ?spore germination?

What fundamental environmental factors are required to trigger spore germination in ferns?

Explain how the ornamentation pattern of the spore wall (proximal vs. distal surfaces) relates to the process of spore germination.

When the spore germinated, the spore wall broke open.? What physical factors caused the spore wall to break?? On which surface of the spore wall did this break occur and why????

With respect to the alternation of generations life cycle, do the spores produced by C-ferns differ in reproductive function from those of other plants?? Why or why not?



STUDY QUESTIONS (Reminder: study questions will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam. )

What is the purpose of the gametophyte individual in the life cycle of a plant like C-fern?

2. What structures anchor the gametophytes to the agar?

3. What cell type(s) comprise the body of the adult gametophyte?

4. Do gametophytes have xylem and phloem??

5. How many morphologies (shapes) of adult gametophytes are present?? Describe the shape(s).

a. How do the shapes of the gametophytes relate to the types of gametangia that each will produce?

6. With regard to function, compare the gametangium with the gametophyte individual.

a. Distinguish between an archegonium and an antheridium. What is the function of each?

7. In nature, the most fern gametophytes produce their gametangia on the ventral surface (surface closest to the soil).? Is this an advantage for the fern?? Why or why not?





STUDY QUESTIONS (Reminder: study questions will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam.)

  • Which cellular process (mitosis or meiosis) makes the gametes of C-fern?? Is this the same cellular process that makes the gametes in other plants?
  • Describe the male gamete of a fern to include its shape, which organelles are present, and the type and number of motile structures.

Describe the motion of the male gamete as it moves toward the female gamete?? How does the structure of the male gamete determine its motion??

By what process do male gametes locate the female gamete?? (How do the sperm cells ?know? in which direction to swim?)?

What structure is formed as the direct result of the fusion of the male and female gametes?

Which generation (phase) of the life cycle begins after the fusion of the male and female gametes?? Is this generation (phase) haploid or diploid?










STUDY QUESTIONS (Reminder: study questions will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam. )

How does the immature sporophyte individual differ from the gametophyte individual with regard to ploidy?

How does the immature sporophyte individual differ from the gametophyte individual with regard to morphology and anatomy?

Describe the nutritional relationship between the female gametophyte and the immature sporophyte as it grows into a leafy adult sporophyte plant.

With regard to the life cycle of the fern, what is the reproductive purpose of the mature sporophyte individual???

How does the adult sporophyte individual differ from the gametophyte with regard to anatomy (cell type composition)?

How will the sporophyte individual anchor to the substrate?? How will the sporophyte individual absorb its nutrients from the substrate?

What will happen to the female gametophyte individual after the sporophyte individual becomes mature enough to photosynthesize and transport nutrients throughout its body?

Are male gametophytes still present on the agar during the maturation of the sporophyte individual?? Why or why not?? What has happened to the male gametophytes?



ANALYSES & CONCLUSIONS STUDY QUESTIONS ?

(Reminder: these are study questions and will not be graded, but will form the basis for many of the questions on the comprehensive final exam.)

1. Are C-ferns isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous? Distinguish among these reproductive conditions.?

Are all plants the same as C-fern with respect to isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy?

  • What does it mean to be an embryophyte?? Is C-fern are considered to be an embryophyte?? Why or why not?.?

Other than being an embryophyte, having alternation of generations life cycle, being photosynthetic and having chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids, list 3 characteristics that are shared by all members of the plant kingdom.? Define each character that you list.

3. The adult C-fern gametophyte individual is much smaller and less complex than the adult sporophyte individual.? Why is the sporophyte individual able to grow to be significantly larger than the gametophyte individual (think structure/physiology)?

  • List two disadvantages of the sporophyte being large (tall)?
  • List two advantages of the sporophyte being large (tall)?
  • List one disadvantage of the gametophyte being small and relatively uniform in structure?
  • List one advantages of the gametophyte being small and relatively uniform in structure?

4. Think about the structure and physiology of the C-fern gametophyte.? Since C-fern gametophytes are photosynthetic, they are able to produce their own food using light energy.

If C-ferns are photosynthetic, why, then, must the gametophytes be grown on agar that contains essential elements? (Do not list all of the elements and their functions. Instead, formulate an answer that presents an overall explanation as to why all of the essential elements are necessary for the C-fern growth).

How do C-fern gametophytes get the essential elements from the agar into their bodies??

Once inside the body of the gametophyte, what pathways (channels) are used by the gametophyte to move required substances throughout the thallus? Use the appropriate botanical terms for each pathway, then describe the channels involved.

What role does the artificial light play in the growth of your fern gametophytes?? As part of your answer, distinguish between light intensity and light quality.

i.? List the specific wavelengths (colors) that are required and for each wavelength (color) list the name(s) of the pigments that absorb that wavelength??

ii. The chemical reactions of photosynthesis are triggered by the action of chlorophyll a.? Describe the internal structure of a chloroplast to describe exactly and precisely where these special chlorophyll a molecules are located.

5.Think about the C-fern sporophyte.? As it matures it forms distinct shoot and root systems and will ultimately become reproductive.

Describe what the adult non-reproductive adult sporophyte individual of C-fern looks like (form/shape, not internal structure).? Be certain to include a description of the shoot and root systems of Ceratopteris using the correct botanical names for each type of shoot and root system and types of organs and tissues which comprise each system.? Include the main function of each organ.

Do C-fern sporophyte individuals have primary growth?? Secondary growth?? Both primary and secondary growth?? Provide evidence for your answer.

Think about the reproductive structures of the adult sporophyte individual of C-fern. What is the name for the reproductive structures that form on the mature sporophyte individual? ?Where are these structures located on the body of the plant??

6.For each of the following pairs of terms, write one sentence describing how the pair of terms is similar and one sentence as to how the pair differ with regard to the plant life cycle.

Gametangium??? vs.?? gametophyte individual

Similar:

Different:

Gametophyte individual??? vs.?? gamete

Similar:

Different:

Gametophyte individual?? vs.?? spore

Similar:

Different:

Gamete??? vs.? gametangium

Similar:

Different:

?Growing notch of C-fern?? vs.?? vascular plant apical meristem

Similar:

Different:

?Rhizoid??? vs.?? root

Similar:

Different:

Archegonium?? vs.? antheridium

Similar:

Different:

Embryo?? vs.?? zygote

Similar:

Different:

Sperm?? vs.?? antheridium

Similar:

Different:

Meiosis?? vs.?? mitosis? (In terms of the life of plants!)

Similar:

Different:

Sporangium?? vs.? gametangium

Similar:

Different:

Spore?? vs.?? gamete

Similar:

Different:

COMPARISON OF C-FERNS, BRYOPHYTES, GYMNOSPERMS & ANGIOSPERMS

7. When comparing the life cycles of vascular plants, evolutionary trends indicate that the more advanced plant groups become, the more reduced are their gametophytes, while their sporophytes become more complex. Using the C-fern as your group of comparison, for each of the following, decide whether or not the C-fern structure is more or less complex than the structure it is being compared to and then provide 2 structural features to support your answer.

C-fern gametophyte compared with the structure of the mature gametophyte of a moss (bryophyte).

C-fern sporophyte compared with the structure of the mature sporophyte of a moss (bryophyte).

C-fern sporophyte compared with the structure of the mature sporophyte of a seed plant.

C-fern gametophyte compared with the structure of the mature gametophytes of a seed plant.

? 8. The sporophyte individual of a typical fern possesses stomates and a cuticle, while these features are absent in the gametophyte individual. What is the function of a stomate?? What is the function of a cuticle? How are the stomates and the cuticle functionally interrelated with regard to the physiological health of the fern sporophyte??

???????

9. All members of the plant kingdom exhibit heteromorphic alternation of generations with sporic meiosis as their life cycle.?

Compare the sexual reproductive process (reference both reproductive structures and processes) of Ceratopteris with that of seed plants.? Be specific!

Compare the sexual reproductive process of Ceratopteris with that of gametophyte dominant plants (bryophytes).

?10. Spores and seeds are both reproductive structures.? All plants produce spores as part of their life cycles, but only some plant groups produce seeds.? List two plant groups that we studied in BIO 215 that reproduce by spores only (i.e., no seeds).? List two plant groups that we studied in BIO 215 that have seeds involved in their life cycle.?

Spores and seeds are very different from one another. Describe how spores and seeds differ both structurally and functionally.

Explain why, biologically, it is necessary for plants that produce seeds to also produce spores.

Finally, plants that produce seeds have a survival advantage over those that reproduce by only spores. Explain how seeds impart this survival advantage.










I DON't NEED THEM ANSWERED ONE BY ONE, BUT IF SOMEONE COULD JUST GIVE ME A COUPLE PARAGRPAHNS EXPLAINING C-FERN IN REGARD TO THESE QUESTIONS IT WOULD BE GREAT! :D

 


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