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(Answered)-Reading ResponsesYou are required to carefully read and annotate


Reading ResponsesYou are required to carefully read and annotate all readings BEFORE ENTERING THEDISCUSSION FORUM. Be prepared to engage in critical discussion of the text. For eachassigned essay from the course text, you must submit a 15-22 sentence typed response thatincludes the following elements:1) 3-4 sentence summary of the essay?s purpose that integrates a brief quote2) 2-3 sentence explanation of the essay?s primary audience3) 2-3 sentence evaluation of the effectiveness of EACH of the three rhetorical appealsa. LOGOS (2-3 sentences)b. ETHOS (2-3 sentences)c. PATHOS (2-3 sentences)4) 3-4 sentence personal reaction to the author?s argument (this is the only part of yourresponse to draw significantly from personal experience)5) One interpretative question


Reading Responses

 

You are required to carefully read and annotate all readings BEFORE ENTERING

 

THE

 

DISCUSSION FORUM. Be prepared to engage in critical discussion of the text. For

 

each

 

assigned essay from the course text, you must submit a 15-22 sentence typed response

 

that

 

includes the following elements:

 

1) 3-4 sentence summary of the essay?s purpose that integrates a brief quote

 

2) 2-3 sentence explanation of the essay?s primary audience

 

3) 2-3 sentence evaluation of the effectiveness of EACH of the three rhetorical

 

appeals

 

a. LOGOS (2-3 sentences)

 

b. ETHOS (2-3 sentences)

 

c. PATHOS (2-3 sentences)

 

4) 3-4 sentence personal reaction to the author?s argument (this is the only part of

 

your

 

response to draw significantly from personal experience)

 

5) One interpretative question Prologue: The Super-Story

 


 

I am a big believer in the idea of the super-story, the notion that we all carry around

 

with us a big lens, a big framework, through which we look at the world, order events,

 

and decide what is important and what is not. The events of 9/11 did not happen in a

 

vacuum. They happened in the context of a new international system ? a system that

 

cannot explain everything but can explain and connect more things in more places on

 


 

more days than anything else. That new international system is called globalization. It

 

came together in the late 1980s and replaced the previous international system, the

 

cold war system, which had reigned since the end of World War II. This new system is

 

the lens, the super-story, through which I viewed the events of 9/11.

 


 

I define globalization as the inexorable integration of markets, transportation systems,

 

and communication systems to a degree never witnessed before ? in a way that is

 

enabling corporations, countries, and individuals to reach around the world farther,

 

faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is enabling the world to

 

reach into corporations, countries, and individuals farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper

 

than ever before.

 


 

Several important features of this globalization system differ from those of the cold

 

war system in ways that are quite relevant for understanding the events of 9/11. I

 

examined them in detail in my previous book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, and

 

want to simply high-light them here.

 


 

The cold war system was characterized by one overarching feature ? and that was

 

division. That world was a divided-up, chopped-up place, and whether you were a

 

country or a company, your threats and opportunities in the cold war system tended to

 

grow out of who you were divided from. Appropriately, this cold war system was

 

symbolized by a single word ? wall, the Berlin Wall.

 


 

The globalization system is different. It also has one overarching feature ? and that is

 

integration. The world has become an increasingly interwoven place, and today,

 


 

whether you are a company or a country, your threats and opportunities increasingly

 

derive from who you are connected to. This globalization system is also characterized

 

by a single word ? web, the World Wide Web. So in the broadest sense we have gone

 

from an international system built around division and walls to a system increasingly

 

built around integration and webs. In the cold war we reached for the hotline, which

 

was a symbol that we were all divided but at least two people were in charge ? the

 

leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union. In the globalization system we

 

reach for the Internet, which is a symbol that we are all connected and nobody is quite

 

in charge.

 


 

Everyone in the world is directly or indirectly affected by this new system, but not

 

everyone benefits from it, not by a long shot, which is why the more it becomes

 

diffused, the more it also produces a backlash by people who feel overwhelmed by it,

 

homogenized by it, or unable to keep pace with its demands.

 


 

The other key difference between the cold way system and the globalization system is

 

how power is structured within them. The cold war system was built primarily around

 

nation-states. You acted on the world in that system through your state. The cold way

 

was a drama of states confronting states, balancing states, and aligning with states.

 

And, as a system, the cold war was balanced at the center by two superstates, two

 

superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union.

 


 

The globalization system, by contrast, is built around three balances, which overlap

 

and affect one another. The first is the traditional balance of power between nationstates. In the globalization system, the United States is now the sole and dominant

 


 

superpower and all other nations are subordinate to it to one degree or another. The

 

shifting balance of power between the United States and other states, or simply

 

between other states, still very much matters for the stability of this system. And it can

 

still explain a lot of the news you read on the front page of the paper, whether it is the

 

news of China balancing Russia, Iran balancing Iraq, or India confronting Pakistan.

 


 

The second important power balance in the globalization system is between nationstates and global markets. These global markets are made up of millions of investors

 

moving money around the world with the click of a mouse. I call them the Electronic

 

Herd, and this herd gathers in key global financial centers ? such as Wall Street, Hong

 

Kong, London, and Frankfurt ? which I call the Supermarkets. The attitudes and

 

actions of the Electronic Herd and the Supermarkets can have a huge impact on

 

nation-states today, even to the point of triggering the downfall of governments. Who

 

ousted Suharto in Indonesia in 1998? It wasn't another state, it was the Supermarkets,

 

by withdrawing their support for, and confidence in, the Indonesian economy. You

 

also will not understand the front page of the newspaper today unless you bring the

 

Supermarkets into your analysis. Because the United States can destroy you by

 

dropping bombs, but the Supermarkets can destroy you by downgrading your bonds.

 

In other words, the United States is the dominant player in maintaining the

 

globalization game board, but it is hardly alone in influencing the moves on that game

 

board.

 


 

The third balance that you have to pay attention to ? the one that is really the newest

 

of all and the most relevant to the events of 9/11 ? is the balance between individuals

 

and nation-states. Because globalization has brought down many of the walls that

 


 

limited the movement and reach of people, and because it has simultaneously wired

 

the world into networks, it gives more power to individuals to influence both markets

 

and nation-states than at any other time in history. Whether by enabling people to use

 

the Internet to communicate instantly at almost no cost over vast distances, or by

 

enabling them to use the Web to transfer money or obtain weapons designs that

 

normally would have been controlled by states, or by enabling them to go into a

 

hardware store now and buy a five-hundred-dollar global positioning device,

 

connected to a satellite, that can direct a hijacked airplane ? globalization can be an

 

incredible force-multiplier for individuals. Individuals can increasingly act on the

 

world stage directly, unmediated by a state.

 


 

So you have today not only a superpower, not only Supermarkets, but also what I call

 

"super-empowered individuals." Some of these super-empowered individuals are

 

quite angry, some of them quite wonderful ? but all of them are now able to act much

 

more directly and much more powerfully on the world stage.

 


 

Osama bin Laden declared war on the United States in the late 1990s. After he

 

organized the bombing of two American embassies in Africa, the U.S. Air Force

 

retaliated with a cruise missile attack on his bases in Afghanistan as though he were

 

another nation-state. Think about that: on one day in 1998, the United States fired 75

 

cruise missiles at bin Laden. The United States fired 75 cruise missiles, at $1 million

 

apiece, at a person! That was the first battle in history between a superpower and a

 

super-empowered angry man. September 11 was just the second such battle.

 


 

Jody Williams won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 for helping to build an international

 


 

coalition to bring about a treaty outlawing land mines. Although nearly 120

 

governments endorsed the treaty, it was opposed by Russia, China, and the United

 

States. When Jody Williams was asked, "How did you do that? How did you organize

 

one thousand different citizens' groups and non governmental organizations on five

 

continents to forge a treaty that was opposed by the major powers?" she had a very

 

brief answer: "E-mail." Jody Williams used e-mail and then networked world to

 

super-empower herself.

 


 

Nation-states, and the American superpower in particular, are still hugely important

 

today, but so too now are Supermarkets and super-empowered individuals. You will

 

never understand the globalization system, or the front page of the morning paper ? or

 

9/11 ? unless you see each one as a complex interaction between all three of these

 

actors: states bumping up against states, states bumping up against Supermarkets, and

 

Supermarkets and states bumping up against super-empowered individuals ? many of

 

whom, unfortunately, are super-empowered angry men.

 


 

 


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