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(Answered)-Reading ResponsesYou are required to carefully read and annotate

Reading ResponsesYou are required to carefully read and annotate all readings BEFORE ENTERING THEDISCUSSION FORUM. Be prepared to engage in critical discussion of the text. For eachassigned essay from the course text, you must submit a 15-22 sentence typed response thatincludes the following elements:1) 3-4 sentence summary of the essay?s purpose that integrates a brief quote2) 2-3 sentence explanation of the essay?s primary audience3) 2-3 sentence evaluation of the effectiveness of EACH of the three rhetorical appealsa. LOGOS (2-3 sentences)b. ETHOS (2-3 sentences)c. PATHOS (2-3 sentences)4) 3-4 sentence personal reaction to the author?s argument (this is the only part of yourresponse to draw significantly from personal experience)5) One interpretative question

Reading Responses


You are required to carefully read and annotate all readings BEFORE ENTERING




DISCUSSION FORUM. Be prepared to engage in critical discussion of the text. For




assigned essay from the course text, you must submit a 15-22 sentence typed response




includes the following elements:


1) 3-4 sentence summary of the essay?s purpose that integrates a brief quote


2) 2-3 sentence explanation of the essay?s primary audience


3) 2-3 sentence evaluation of the effectiveness of EACH of the three rhetorical




a. LOGOS (2-3 sentences)


b. ETHOS (2-3 sentences)


c. PATHOS (2-3 sentences)


4) 3-4 sentence personal reaction to the author?s argument (this is the only part of




response to draw significantly from personal experience)


5) One interpretative question Prologue: The Super-Story



I am a big believer in the idea of the super-story, the notion that we all carry around


with us a big lens, a big framework, through which we look at the world, order events,


and decide what is important and what is not. The events of 9/11 did not happen in a


vacuum. They happened in the context of a new international system ? a system that


cannot explain everything but can explain and connect more things in more places on



more days than anything else. That new international system is called globalization. It


came together in the late 1980s and replaced the previous international system, the


cold war system, which had reigned since the end of World War II. This new system is


the lens, the super-story, through which I viewed the events of 9/11.



I define globalization as the inexorable integration of markets, transportation systems,


and communication systems to a degree never witnessed before ? in a way that is


enabling corporations, countries, and individuals to reach around the world farther,


faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is enabling the world to


reach into corporations, countries, and individuals farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper


than ever before.



Several important features of this globalization system differ from those of the cold


war system in ways that are quite relevant for understanding the events of 9/11. I


examined them in detail in my previous book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, and


want to simply high-light them here.



The cold war system was characterized by one overarching feature ? and that was


division. That world was a divided-up, chopped-up place, and whether you were a


country or a company, your threats and opportunities in the cold war system tended to


grow out of who you were divided from. Appropriately, this cold war system was


symbolized by a single word ? wall, the Berlin Wall.



The globalization system is different. It also has one overarching feature ? and that is


integration. The world has become an increasingly interwoven place, and today,



whether you are a company or a country, your threats and opportunities increasingly


derive from who you are connected to. This globalization system is also characterized


by a single word ? web, the World Wide Web. So in the broadest sense we have gone


from an international system built around division and walls to a system increasingly


built around integration and webs. In the cold war we reached for the hotline, which


was a symbol that we were all divided but at least two people were in charge ? the


leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union. In the globalization system we


reach for the Internet, which is a symbol that we are all connected and nobody is quite


in charge.



Everyone in the world is directly or indirectly affected by this new system, but not


everyone benefits from it, not by a long shot, which is why the more it becomes


diffused, the more it also produces a backlash by people who feel overwhelmed by it,


homogenized by it, or unable to keep pace with its demands.



The other key difference between the cold way system and the globalization system is


how power is structured within them. The cold war system was built primarily around


nation-states. You acted on the world in that system through your state. The cold way


was a drama of states confronting states, balancing states, and aligning with states.


And, as a system, the cold war was balanced at the center by two superstates, two


superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union.



The globalization system, by contrast, is built around three balances, which overlap


and affect one another. The first is the traditional balance of power between nationstates. In the globalization system, the United States is now the sole and dominant



superpower and all other nations are subordinate to it to one degree or another. The


shifting balance of power between the United States and other states, or simply


between other states, still very much matters for the stability of this system. And it can


still explain a lot of the news you read on the front page of the paper, whether it is the


news of China balancing Russia, Iran balancing Iraq, or India confronting Pakistan.



The second important power balance in the globalization system is between nationstates and global markets. These global markets are made up of millions of investors


moving money around the world with the click of a mouse. I call them the Electronic


Herd, and this herd gathers in key global financial centers ? such as Wall Street, Hong


Kong, London, and Frankfurt ? which I call the Supermarkets. The attitudes and


actions of the Electronic Herd and the Supermarkets can have a huge impact on


nation-states today, even to the point of triggering the downfall of governments. Who


ousted Suharto in Indonesia in 1998? It wasn't another state, it was the Supermarkets,


by withdrawing their support for, and confidence in, the Indonesian economy. You


also will not understand the front page of the newspaper today unless you bring the


Supermarkets into your analysis. Because the United States can destroy you by


dropping bombs, but the Supermarkets can destroy you by downgrading your bonds.


In other words, the United States is the dominant player in maintaining the


globalization game board, but it is hardly alone in influencing the moves on that game





The third balance that you have to pay attention to ? the one that is really the newest


of all and the most relevant to the events of 9/11 ? is the balance between individuals


and nation-states. Because globalization has brought down many of the walls that



limited the movement and reach of people, and because it has simultaneously wired


the world into networks, it gives more power to individuals to influence both markets


and nation-states than at any other time in history. Whether by enabling people to use


the Internet to communicate instantly at almost no cost over vast distances, or by


enabling them to use the Web to transfer money or obtain weapons designs that


normally would have been controlled by states, or by enabling them to go into a


hardware store now and buy a five-hundred-dollar global positioning device,


connected to a satellite, that can direct a hijacked airplane ? globalization can be an


incredible force-multiplier for individuals. Individuals can increasingly act on the


world stage directly, unmediated by a state.



So you have today not only a superpower, not only Supermarkets, but also what I call


"super-empowered individuals." Some of these super-empowered individuals are


quite angry, some of them quite wonderful ? but all of them are now able to act much


more directly and much more powerfully on the world stage.



Osama bin Laden declared war on the United States in the late 1990s. After he


organized the bombing of two American embassies in Africa, the U.S. Air Force


retaliated with a cruise missile attack on his bases in Afghanistan as though he were


another nation-state. Think about that: on one day in 1998, the United States fired 75


cruise missiles at bin Laden. The United States fired 75 cruise missiles, at $1 million


apiece, at a person! That was the first battle in history between a superpower and a


super-empowered angry man. September 11 was just the second such battle.



Jody Williams won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 for helping to build an international



coalition to bring about a treaty outlawing land mines. Although nearly 120


governments endorsed the treaty, it was opposed by Russia, China, and the United


States. When Jody Williams was asked, "How did you do that? How did you organize


one thousand different citizens' groups and non governmental organizations on five


continents to forge a treaty that was opposed by the major powers?" she had a very


brief answer: "E-mail." Jody Williams used e-mail and then networked world to


super-empower herself.



Nation-states, and the American superpower in particular, are still hugely important


today, but so too now are Supermarkets and super-empowered individuals. You will


never understand the globalization system, or the front page of the morning paper ? or


9/11 ? unless you see each one as a complex interaction between all three of these


actors: states bumping up against states, states bumping up against Supermarkets, and


Supermarkets and states bumping up against super-empowered individuals ? many of


whom, unfortunately, are super-empowered angry men.




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