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OC 6443

 

Change Leadership Methods and Models

 


 

Week 2

 

INQUIRY:

 

DIAGNOSIS;

 

ACTION

 

RESEARCH;

 

ACTION LEARNING

 


 

Diagnosis Defined

 

Diagnosis is a collaborative process

 

between organizational members and the

 

OD consultant to collect pertinent

 

information, analyze it, and draw

 

conclusions for action planning and

 

intervention.

 


 

SYSTEMS THEORY

 


 

What is a system?

 

A system is a set of objects or elements that interact to achieve a

 

specific goal .

 

A system is more than the sum of it's parts; it's properties emerge

 

from the relationship among it's parts and from the system's

 

relationship to its environment

 

Systems are arranged hierarchically, so every system is a super

 

system for systems contained within it and a subsystem for

 

systems containing it

 

All systems are more or less similar

 

? What do systems do?

 

? The function of a system is to convert information, energy, or

 

materials into a planned outcome or product for use within

 

the system, outside the system or both.

 


 

Types of systems

 

? Systems differ from each other related to degree of selfsufficiency, complexity, and adaptability.

 

? Closed systems have fixed relationships among system

 

components and no interaction with the environment. Not really

 

of concern to IT.

 

? Open systems interact with their environment, have dynamic

 

interaction of components, and can be self-regulating.

 

? Human organizations are open systems; boundaries are

 

permeable, continually engage in importing, transforming, and

 

exporting matter, energy, information, and people; Human

 

organisations are at the high end of the complexity scale due to

 

these characteristics.

 


 

What are the basic elements of

 

any system?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

goal

 

environment

 

control

 

input

 

process

 

output

 

feedback.

 


 

Systems Theory

 

? Synergy

 

? Interdependence

 

? Interconnections

 

? within the organization

 

? between the organization and the environment

 


 

? Organization as ORGANISM

 

? ?A set of elements standing in interrelations?

 


 

The Organization as an Open System

 


 

Input Stage

 


 

Conversion

 

Stage

 


 

Output

 

Stage

 


 

Raw

 

Materials

 


 

Machines

 


 

Goods

 

Services

 


 

Human skills

 

Sales of outputs

 

Firm can then buy inputs

 


 

The Learning Organization

 

? Adaptive (single-loop) Learning

 

? Involves coping with a situation

 

? Limited by the scope of current organizational

 

assumptions

 

? Occurs when a mismatch between action and outcome

 

is corrected without changing the underlying values of

 

the system that enabled the mismatch.

 


 

? Generative (double-loop) Learning

 

? Moves from COPING to CREATING an improved

 

organizational reality

 

? Necessary for eventual survival of the organization

 


 

? Both are Central Features of the Model of the

 

Communicative Organization

 

? Synergy and Nonsummativity are Important

 


 

The Learning Organization

 

? Through communication, teams are able to learn

 

more than individuals operating alone.

 

? Critics argue that teams inhibit learning

 

? Thoughts?

 


 

? Leadership is a key element in creating and

 

sustaining a learning organization.

 

? Leaders are responsible for promoting an

 

atmosphere conducive to learning

 

? CREATIVE TENSION

 

? Represents difference between the ?vision? of where the

 

organization could be and the reality of the current

 

organizational situation.

 


 

Impediments to Learning

 

Organization

 

? Complexity of the Environment

 

? Difficult to determine cause and effect

 

? Multiple contributing elements in complex

 

environments

 


 

? Internal Conflicts

 

? Individuals, teams, departments, and subcultures are

 

often at odds

 

? Energy is drained by conflict

 


 

? Organization members must be trained in

 

communication and conflict-negotiation skills

 


 

Conclusion

 

? The importance of studying the organization?s

 

external environment became clear in the

 

1960s.

 

? A main focus of such research was to find

 

methods to help managers improve the ways

 

they use organizational resources and compete

 

successfully in the global environment.

 


 

Organizational

 

Diagnosis

 


 

Open Systems Model

 

Environment

 

Inputs

 

? Information

 

? Energy

 

? People

 


 

Transformations

 

? Social Component

 

? Technological

 

Component

 


 

Feedback

 


 

Outputs

 

? Goods

 

? Services

 

? Ideas

 


 

Key Features of the Model

 

? Environments affect inputs, internal

 

operations, & outputs

 

? Organizational inputs can be used as

 

inputs for maintenance and growth

 

? Organizations are influenced by

 

members as well as environments

 

? System elements are interrelated and

 

influence each other

 


 

Key Feature, Continued

 

? Organizations are constantly changing

 

? Organizational success depends on ability

 

to adapt to or to final a favorable

 

environment, tie people into their

 

organizational roles, and manage

 

operations

 

? Any level or unit within an organization

 

can be viewed as a system

 


 

Organization-Level

 

Diagnostic Model

 

Inputs

 


 

Outputs

 


 

Design Components

 

Technology

 

Strategy

 


 

Structure

 


 

HR

 

Systems

 


 

Measurement

 

Systems

 


 

Culture

 


 

Industry

 

Structure

 


 

Organization

 

Effectiveness

 


 

General

 

Environment

 


 

Model for Organizational Diagnosis

 


 

Inputs

 


 

Strategic

 

Orientation

 


 

Outputs

 


 

General

 

Environment

 


 

Strategy

 


 

Organizational

 

Performance

 


 

Industry

 

Structure

 


 

Organizational Productivity

 

Design

 

Stakeholder

 

Satisfaction

 


 

Key Alignment Questions

 

? Do the Design Components fit with the

 

Inputs?

 

? Are the Design Components internal

 

consistent? Do they fit and mutually

 

support each other?

 


 

Organization-Level Inputs

 

? General Environment

 

? External forces that can directly or indirectly

 

affect the attainment of organizational

 

objectives

 

? Social, technological, ecological, economic,

 

and political factors

 


 

? Industry Structure

 

? External forces (task environment) that can

 

directly affect the organization

 

? Customers, suppliers, substitute products,

 

new entrants, and rivalry among competitors

 


 

Organization Design Components

 

? Strategy

 

? the way an organization uses its resources

 

(human, economic, or technical) to gain and

 

sustain a competitive advantage

 


 

? Structure

 

? how attention and resources are focused on

 

task accomplishment

 


 

? Technology

 

? the way an organization converts inputs into

 

products and services

 


 

Organization Design Components

 

? Human Resource Systems

 

? the mechanisms for selecting, developing,

 

appraising, and rewarding organization

 

members

 


 

? Measurement Systems

 

? methods of gathering, assessing, and

 

disseminating information on the activities of

 

groups and individuals in organizations

 


 

Organization Design Components

 

? Organization Culture

 

? The basic assumptions, values, and norms

 

shared by organization members

 

? Represents both an ?outcome? of organization

 

design and a ?foundation? or ?constraint? to

 

change

 


 

Outputs

 

? Organization Performance

 

? e.g., profits, profitability, stock price

 


 

? Productivity

 

? e.g., cost/employee, cost/unit, error rates,

 

quality

 


 

? Stakeholder Satisfaction

 

? e.g., market share, employee satisfaction,

 

regulation compliance

 


 

Data for Organizational Level

 

Diagnosis

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Environmental data

 

Industry structure data

 

Goals & strategies

 

Organizational design & structure

 

Organizational performance

 

Productivity

 

Stakeholder satisfaction

 


 

The Process

 

Diagnosis is cyclical process involving:

 

? Data gathering.

 

? Identification of

 

problem areas.

 


 

? Interpretation.

 

? Potential action

 

programs.

 


 

Steps in Diagnosis

 

Step 1: Tentative problem identified.

 

Step 2: Collect data.

 

Step 3: Analyze data.

 

Step 4: Feedback data.

 

Step 5: More data needed?

 

Step 6: Problem areas identified.

 

Step 7: Is client motivated?

 

Step 8: Diagnosis and work on problem.

 

Step 9: Monitor and assess results.

 


 

Types of Data-Gathering

 

Methods

 

1. Secondary sources.

 

?

 


 

Organization and industry data.

 


 

2. Employee surveys or questionnaires.

 

?

 

?

 


 

Useful with a large number of people.

 

Data may lack ?richness.?

 


 

3. Direct observation.

 

?

 


 

Observing how people go about tasks.

 


 

4. Interviews.

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Direct, personal, and flexible.

 

One of most widely used methods.

 

Directed interview.

 

Nondirected interview.

 


 

Analysis of Data

 

? Techniques used to analyze data.

 

? Dictated by method used to gather data.

 


 

? Type of analysis decided prior to data

 

collection.

 


 

Guidelines for Evaluating

 

Effectiveness of Data

 

Collection

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Validity of data.

 

Time to collect data.

 

Cost of data collection.

 

Organization culture and norms.

 

Hawthorne effect in data collecting.

 


 

Diagnostic Models

 

? Models may be used to:

 

? Analyze structure, culture, and behavior of

 

organization.

 


 

? Models play a critical role.

 

? Provide conceptual framework to

 

understand organization.

 


 

Warning Signs in Diagnosis

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Confidentiality of data.

 

Over-diagnosis.

 

Crisis diagnosis.

 

Threatening and overwhelming diagnosis.

 

Practitioner?s favorite diagnosis.

 

Diagnosis of symptoms, not problems.

 


 

Action

 

Research/Learning

 


 

Action Research

 


 

What is Action Research?

 

? Definition

 

? Action research is known by many other names,

 

including participatory research, collaborative inquiry,

 

emancipatory research, action learning, and

 

contextual action research, but all are variations on a

 

theme.

 

? Put simply, action research is ?learning by doing? - a

 

group of people identify a problem, do something to

 

resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and

 

if not satisfied, try again.

 

? While this is the essence of the approach, there are

 

other key attributes of action research that

 

differentiate it from common problem-solving

 

activities that we all engage in every day.

 


 

Simple Action Research Model

 


 

Detailed Action Research Model

 


 

Action Research Model

 

Problem Identification

 

Consultation with a

 

behavioral scientist

 


 

Joint diagnosis

 

Joint action planning

 


 

Data gathering &

 

preliminary diagnosis

 


 

Action

 


 

Feedback to Client

 


 

Data gathering after

 

action

 


 

Principles of Action Research

 

? What gives action research its unique flavor is

 

the set of principles that guide the research.

 

? Winter (1989) provides a comprehensive

 

overview of six key principles.

 


 

? Reflexive critique

 

? An account of a situation, such as notes, transcripts or official

 

documents, will make implicit claims to be authoritative, i.e.,

 

it implies that it is factual and true.

 


 

? Dialectical critique

 

? Phenomena are conceptualized in dialogue, therefore a

 

dialectical critique is required to understand the set of

 

relationships both between the phenomenon and its context,

 

and between the elements constituting the phenomenon.

 


 

? Collaborative Resource

 

? The principle of collaborative resource presupposes that each

 

person?s ideas are equally significant as potential resources

 

for creating interpretive categories of analysis, negotiated

 

among the participants.

 


 

? Risk

 

? The change process potentially threatens all previously established

 

ways of doing things, thus creating psychic fears among the

 

practitioners.

 

? Initiators of action research will use this principle to allay others?

 

fears and invite participation by pointing out that they, too, will be

 

subject to the same process, and that whatever the outcome,

 

learning will take place.

 


 

? Plural Structure

 

? The nature of the research embodies a multiplicity of views,

 

commentaries and critiques, leading to multiple possible actions

 

and interpretations.

 

? This means that there will be many accounts made explicit, with

 

commentaries on their contradictions, and a range of options for

 

action presented.

 


 

? Theory, Practice, Transformation

 

? For action researchers, theory informs practice, practice refines

 

theory, in a continuous transformation.

 


 

When is Action Research used?

 

? Action research is used in real situations, rather than in

 

contrived, experimental studies, since its primary focus

 

is on solving real problems.

 

? It can, however, be used by social scientists for

 

preliminary or pilot research, especially when the

 

situation is too ambiguous to frame a precise research

 

question.

 

? Mostly, though, in accordance with its principles, it is

 

chosen when circumstances require flexibility, the

 

involvement of the people in the research, or change

 

must take place quickly or holistically.

 


 

When used (Cont?d)?

 

? It is often the case that those who apply this approach

 

are practitioners who wish to improve understanding of

 

their practice,

 

? social change activists trying to mount an action

 

campaign, or, more likely,

 

? academics who have been invited into an organization

 

(or other domain) by decision-makers aware of a

 

problem requiring action research, but lacking the

 

requisite methodological knowledge to deal with it.

 


 

Current Types of Action Research

 

? By the mid-1970s, the field had evolved,

 

revealing 4 main ?streams? that had emerged:

 

? traditional,

 

? contextural (action learning),

 

? radical, and

 

? educational action research.

 


 

Traditional Action Research

 

? Traditional Action Research stemmed from Lewin?s work within

 

organizations and encompasses the concepts and practices of

 

Field Theory, Group Dynamics, T-Groups, and the Clinical Model.

 

? The growing importance of labor-management relations led to

 

the application of action research in the areas of Organization

 

Development, Quality of Working Life (QWL), Socio-technical

 

systems (e.g., Information Systems), and Organizational

 

Democracy.

 

? This traditional approach tends toward the conservative,

 

generally maintaining the status quo with regards to

 

organizational power structures.

 


 

Contextural Action Research (Action

 

Learning)

 

? Contextural Action Research, also sometimes referred to as

 

Action Learning, is an approach derived from Trist?s work on

 

relations between organizations.

 

? It is contextural, insofar as it entails reconstituting the structural

 

relations among actors in a social environment; domain-based,

 

in that it tries to involve all affected parties and stakeholders;

 

holographic, as each participant understands the working of the

 

whole; and it stresses that participants act as project designers

 

and co-researchers.

 

? The concept of organizational ecology, and the use of search

 

conferences come out of contextural action research, which is

 

more of a liberal philosophy, with social transformation

 

occurring by consensus and normative incrementalism.

 


 

Radical Action Research

 

? The Radical stream, which has its roots in Marxian

 

?dialectical materialism? and the praxis orientations of

 

Antonio Gramsci, has a strong focus on emancipation

 

and the overcoming of power imbalances.

 

? Participatory Action Research, often found in

 

liberationist movements and international

 

development circles, and Feminist Action Research

 

both strive for social transformation via an advocacy

 

process to strengthen peripheral groups in society.

 


 

Educational Action Research

 

? A fourth stream, that of Educational Action Research, has its

 

foundations in the writings of John Dewey, the great American

 

educational philosopher of the 1920s and 30s, who believed that

 

professional educators should become involved in community

 

problem-solving.

 

? Its practitioners, not surprisingly, operate mainly out of

 

educational institutions, and focus on development of curriculum,

 

professional development, and applying learning in a social

 

context.

 

? It is often the case that university-based action researchers work

 

with primary and secondary school teachers and students on

 

community projects.

 


 

Action Research Sites

 

? http://www.web.net/~robrien/papers/arfinal.html#

 

_Toc26184654

 

? http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc/act_res.htm

 

l

 

? http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/coss.html#arr

 

? http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc/pract_res.h

 

tml

 


 

PAU!

 


 

 


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