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(Answered)-I need an article critique about the file I added with the


I need an article critique about the file I added with the following standards:

The Article Critique must include the following components:

? a brief introduction to the article,

? a summary and analysis of the key points in the article,

? whether or not the article supports the concepts as presented in the textbook, and

? a summary of the article's conclusions and your own opinions.

Your Article Critique must be at least one page in length, double spaced. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

in APA style?


Best Practices

 


 

J

 


 

Lockout/Tagout in Mining

 

Seven Tips for Worker Safety

 

By Matt Dudgeon

 


 

C

 


 

heck the job description of

 

a typical mine safety manager and you will find a long list of

 

responsibilifies. Among them are

 

developing and directing facilit}'wide safety programs such as an

 

effecfive lockout/tagout (LOTO)

 

program. These critical funcfions

 

require procedure development and

 

employee training, as well a program to manage dozens, hundreds

 

or even thousands of padlocks and

 

lockout devices within a facility.

 


 

Since 1990, MSHA has classified at

 

least 75 fatal and 1,850 nonfatal incidents in the mining industry as electrical. Many could have been prevented

 

had the circuits been locked, grounded

 

and tagged before maintenance was

 

performed.

 

A company may purchase lockout padlocks and devices for myriad

 

applicafions, so it must ensure that

 

employees are appropriately trained to

 

perform required lockout procedures.

 

Authorized workers must know how to

 

properly isolate equipment to ensure

 

that hazardous energy is reduced to a

 

zero state and remains that way unfil

 

servicing is complete. Otherwise, the

 

risk of injury or death is imminent.

 

Efficient, Thorougli Training

 

MSHA regulations for both metal/

 

nonmetal and coal mining require locking and tagging electrical circuits before

 

performing maintenance on a circuit or

 

on the mechanical equipment supplied

 

by the circuit.

 

Several MSHA standards relate to

 

LOTO, depending on commodity:

 

Surface/Underground

 

Metal/Nonmetal

 

?30 CFR 56/57.12016;

 

?30 CFR 56/57.12017;

 

?30 CFR 56/57.14105.

 


 

Underground Coal

 

?30

 

?30

 

?30

 

?30

 

?30

 


 

CFR

 

CFR

 

CFR

 

CFR

 

CFR

 


 

75.509;

 

75.511;

 

75.705;

 

75.820;

 

75.1725.

 


 

Surface Coal

 

?30 CFR 77.404;

 

?30 CFR 77.500;

 


 

7 0 ProfessionalSafety

 


 

SEPTEMBER2013

 


 

?30 CFR 77.501;

 

?30 CFR 77.704.

 

Training provided in accordance with

 

30 CFR Part 46 or Part 48 must cover

 

basic LOTO principles as well as taskspecific tasks that can include LOTO

 

procedures for each piece of equipment

 

that may be serviced or maintained.

 

MSHA has also incorporated the

 

LOTO standards into its Rules to Live

 

By campaign, under which violations

 

may incur specially assessed penalties.

 

Where does one start when implementing an LOTO program to reduce

 

the potential for future incidents? A

 

simple recommendation is to begin

 


 

A focused,

 

multifaceted

 

approach to

 

LOTO can make

 

any mining

 

operation safer.

 

with general training for all workers

 

who will use or be affected by LOTO

 

within the work environment. Training should explain LOTO, why it is

 

needed, and LOTO do's and don'ts. An

 

employer should also provide machineand lockout-device-specific training.

 

MSHA allowsflexibilityin training

 

format, but the responsibility always

 

resides with the company.

 

Thorough training requires a

 

significant and focused time commitment that can tax many mining safety

 

managers due to their other responsibilities. Thus, safety consultants can be

 

a viable alternative. When considering

 

this route, a company should seek an

 

experienced provider who understands

 

facility-specific requirements, especially

 

because MSHA and OSHA standards

 

differ. If a full-service consultant develops the site's safety lockout procedures,

 

s/he will make an excellent training

 

provider as well.

 

One Padloci(, One Key Per Employee

 

To select the best safety padlock for

 

a facility, first consider the number of

 

employees who require safety padlocks to lockout energy sources. This

 

determines the number of key codes

 

the facility requires since each employee should have a unique key under

 

www.asse.org

 


 

the premise of one lock, one key per

 

employee. This prevents workers from

 

inadvertently opening each other's

 

padlocks and introducing a potential

 

safety hazard.

 

Select a padlock style that has

 

enough key codes to meet current

 

requirements as well as to expand to

 

meet future needs. Key codes for all

 

locks should be recorded and saved

 

under an assigned user ID. This key record can be referenced to confirm that

 

new key codes are always assigned to

 

safety locks purchased by a facility.

 

One excepfion to consider: Although

 

keyed-different padlocks are primarily

 

used for safety lockout, in some cases,

 

an employee may need several personal

 

padlocks. In this circumstance, the appropriate number of locks can be keyed

 

alike so the worker can use a single key

 

rather than fumbling with a ring full of

 

different keys. As long as the keys are

 

safely controlled, this should ensure

 

that the keyed-alike padlocks can only

 

be opened by the assigned employee.

 

Regardless of location used, LOTO

 

padlocks must be unique and visibly

 

different from padlocks used for general security purposes. Using different color models and styles also alerts

 

workers to LOTO procedures, which

 

helps to ensure compliance.

 

iVIajor issues & Seven Key Steps

 

Workplace realities, including those

 

at mining operations, indicate that

 

procedures in many facilities would

 

benefit greatly from more efficient

 

LOTO direcfion with machine-specific

 

instructions. The sheer volume and

 

diversity of equipment at a site add a

 

certain level of complexity to LOTO actions. Despite all efforts, oversights and

 

errors can result in injuries, equipment

 

damage or worse. But costly mishaps

 

can be prevented using a methodical

 

approach.

 

A seven-step LOTO process is outlined here, but three major issues must

 

always be considered:

 

?Alert affected workers. Employees

 

and contractors using equipment that

 

needs to be locked out must be aware

 

of and comply with LOTO procedures.

 

Miners operating ancillary and sequenfial production process equipment

 

should also be notified when machinery is locked out or when LOTO pro-

 


 

lockout devices to hold switches and

 

valves in the safe or off position. Secure

 

all power sources and confirm that each

 

person working on an electrical circuit

 

or system applies his/her personal lock

 

and tag.

 

6) Release stored energy. Bleed off

 

pressure, drain all lines, block elevated

 

parts and discharge capacitors as well

 

as residual air, gas, steam and water

 

pressure. Use properly rated noncontact voltage testers to ensure that

 

circuits are deenergized.

 

7) Verify lockout by first confirming that no employees are exposed to

 

danger, then test machine controls to

 

confirm a zero-energy state.

 

Releasing LOTO: An Important

 

& Specific Process

 


 

cedures are scheduled. This prevents

 

them fiom inadvertently interfering or

 

unnecessarily continuing to operate

 

their machines with adverse effects.

 

?Consider multiple energy

 

sources. When reviewing lockout

 

procedures for the equipment to be serviced, workers should identify whether

 

energy sources other than electricity are

 

present; if so, they must be controlled.

 

Lockout procedure placards should be

 

attached to all machinery; these list

 

the steps required to isolate all energy

 

sources and include images to identify the location of all isolation points.

 

Workers who rely solely on familiarity

 

with equipment are at risk since they

 

could inadvertently miss a step in the

 

equipment isolation process.

 

?Remember that electrical energy

 

acts and reacts differently than other

 

types of energy. When a button is

 

pushed or an electrical switch is thrown,

 

the power goes on or off instantly. Other types of energy do not react in this

 

manner. For example, kinetic energy

 

slowly and gradually keeps gears turning, belts moving and rotors rotating.

 

Engines and components need time to

 

cool down, so even though a machine is

 

turned off, it may not be safe to proceed

 

with an LOTO procedure.

 

With a worker fiiendly approach

 

and understanding, injuries, damaged

 

equipment and MSHA fines can be

 


 

avoided. The following seven steps can

 

help avoid dangerous omissions.

 

1) Prepare for shutdown. Note the

 

types, magnitude and hazards of fhe

 

energy that must be controlled and

 

how they need to be isolated. Identify all energy sources that need to be

 

locked out, the location of each lockouf

 

point and the lockout devices required.

 

Be familiar with electrical circuits before

 

performing elecfrical work and ask for

 

help or consult a wiring diagram/schematic.

 

2) Notify all affected employees that

 

shutdown and LOTO are beginning.

 

Provide an audible or visible warning

 

system and ensure that there is safe

 

access to all working areas.

 

3) Shut down the machine or equipment. Turn off energy points in the

 

proper sequence to prevent equipment

 

damage and to avoid creating additional hazards. Also, wear appropriate

 

PPE, including electrically rated gloves,

 

hard hat and eye protection. As noted,

 

lockout procedure placards should be

 

attached to all equipment.

 

4) Isolate all energy sources, including electric, hydraulic, mechanical and

 

pneumatic, before commencing work.

 

This is achieved by deactivating valves

 

and by disconnecting switches and circuit breakers as outlined in the lockout

 

procedure.

 

5) Lock out by applying locks and

 


 

When maintenance or repair is complete, powering up equipment calls for

 

several steps to ensure worker safety

 

and prevent equipment damage. Two

 

tasks should be performed before any

 

LOTO devices are removed.

 

1) Check machines and equipment.

 

Authorized employees must replace

 

machine guards, and remove tools and

 

nonessential items fiom the work area.

 

Block devices that were inserted also

 

need to be removed, although in some

 

cases the machine may need to be

 

restarted first.

 

2) Make sure the work area is clear

 

and that workers are in a safe place

 

away fiom the machines or equipment.

 

Once those steps are complete,

 

LOTO release can continue:

 

3) Remove LOTO devices. This task

 

should only be performed by the employee who applied the devices.

 

4) Before resfarting any machine or

 

equipment, notify all affected employees that the LOTO devices have been

 

removed.

 

5) Restore energy to the machine. As

 

noted, this step may require cautiously

 

reenergizing some machines to remove

 

blocking devices. Additional authorized

 

employee assistance may be needed to

 

reenergize certain sections or parts of

 

the equipment.

 

A focused, multifaceted approach to

 

LOTO can make any mining operation

 

safer.

 

Matt Dudgeon is the global product manager,

 

life safety, at Master Lock Co. LLC (www

 

.masterlock.com) in Milwaukee, Wl. He can be

 

contacted atmdudgeon@inlock.com.

 


 

www.asse.org

 


 

SEPTEMBER 2013

 


 

ProfessionalSafety

 


 

71

 


 

Copyright of Professional Safety is the property of American Society of Safety Engineers and

 

its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the

 

copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email

 

articles for individual use.

 


 

 


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