Question Details

(Answered)-I need an article critique about the file I added with the

I need an article critique about the file I added with the following standards:

The Article Critique must include the following components:

? a brief introduction to the article,

? a summary and analysis of the key points in the article,

? whether or not the article supports the concepts as presented in the textbook, and

? a summary of the article's conclusions and your own opinions.

Your Article Critique must be at least one page in length, double spaced. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

in APA style?

Best Practices






Lockout/Tagout in Mining


Seven Tips for Worker Safety


By Matt Dudgeon






heck the job description of


a typical mine safety manager and you will find a long list of


responsibilifies. Among them are


developing and directing facilit}'wide safety programs such as an


effecfive lockout/tagout (LOTO)


program. These critical funcfions


require procedure development and


employee training, as well a program to manage dozens, hundreds


or even thousands of padlocks and


lockout devices within a facility.



Since 1990, MSHA has classified at


least 75 fatal and 1,850 nonfatal incidents in the mining industry as electrical. Many could have been prevented


had the circuits been locked, grounded


and tagged before maintenance was




A company may purchase lockout padlocks and devices for myriad


applicafions, so it must ensure that


employees are appropriately trained to


perform required lockout procedures.


Authorized workers must know how to


properly isolate equipment to ensure


that hazardous energy is reduced to a


zero state and remains that way unfil


servicing is complete. Otherwise, the


risk of injury or death is imminent.


Efficient, Thorougli Training


MSHA regulations for both metal/


nonmetal and coal mining require locking and tagging electrical circuits before


performing maintenance on a circuit or


on the mechanical equipment supplied


by the circuit.


Several MSHA standards relate to


LOTO, depending on commodity:






?30 CFR 56/57.12016;


?30 CFR 56/57.12017;


?30 CFR 56/57.14105.



Underground Coal



































Surface Coal


?30 CFR 77.404;


?30 CFR 77.500;



7 0 ProfessionalSafety






?30 CFR 77.501;


?30 CFR 77.704.


Training provided in accordance with


30 CFR Part 46 or Part 48 must cover


basic LOTO principles as well as taskspecific tasks that can include LOTO


procedures for each piece of equipment


that may be serviced or maintained.


MSHA has also incorporated the


LOTO standards into its Rules to Live


By campaign, under which violations


may incur specially assessed penalties.


Where does one start when implementing an LOTO program to reduce


the potential for future incidents? A


simple recommendation is to begin



A focused,




approach to


LOTO can make


any mining


operation safer.


with general training for all workers


who will use or be affected by LOTO


within the work environment. Training should explain LOTO, why it is


needed, and LOTO do's and don'ts. An


employer should also provide machineand lockout-device-specific training.


MSHA allowsflexibilityin training


format, but the responsibility always


resides with the company.


Thorough training requires a


significant and focused time commitment that can tax many mining safety


managers due to their other responsibilities. Thus, safety consultants can be


a viable alternative. When considering


this route, a company should seek an


experienced provider who understands


facility-specific requirements, especially


because MSHA and OSHA standards


differ. If a full-service consultant develops the site's safety lockout procedures,


s/he will make an excellent training


provider as well.


One Padloci(, One Key Per Employee


To select the best safety padlock for


a facility, first consider the number of


employees who require safety padlocks to lockout energy sources. This


determines the number of key codes


the facility requires since each employee should have a unique key under



the premise of one lock, one key per


employee. This prevents workers from


inadvertently opening each other's


padlocks and introducing a potential


safety hazard.


Select a padlock style that has


enough key codes to meet current


requirements as well as to expand to


meet future needs. Key codes for all


locks should be recorded and saved


under an assigned user ID. This key record can be referenced to confirm that


new key codes are always assigned to


safety locks purchased by a facility.


One excepfion to consider: Although


keyed-different padlocks are primarily


used for safety lockout, in some cases,


an employee may need several personal


padlocks. In this circumstance, the appropriate number of locks can be keyed


alike so the worker can use a single key


rather than fumbling with a ring full of


different keys. As long as the keys are


safely controlled, this should ensure


that the keyed-alike padlocks can only


be opened by the assigned employee.


Regardless of location used, LOTO


padlocks must be unique and visibly


different from padlocks used for general security purposes. Using different color models and styles also alerts


workers to LOTO procedures, which


helps to ensure compliance.


iVIajor issues & Seven Key Steps


Workplace realities, including those


at mining operations, indicate that


procedures in many facilities would


benefit greatly from more efficient


LOTO direcfion with machine-specific


instructions. The sheer volume and


diversity of equipment at a site add a


certain level of complexity to LOTO actions. Despite all efforts, oversights and


errors can result in injuries, equipment


damage or worse. But costly mishaps


can be prevented using a methodical




A seven-step LOTO process is outlined here, but three major issues must


always be considered:


?Alert affected workers. Employees


and contractors using equipment that


needs to be locked out must be aware


of and comply with LOTO procedures.


Miners operating ancillary and sequenfial production process equipment


should also be notified when machinery is locked out or when LOTO pro-



lockout devices to hold switches and


valves in the safe or off position. Secure


all power sources and confirm that each


person working on an electrical circuit


or system applies his/her personal lock


and tag.


6) Release stored energy. Bleed off


pressure, drain all lines, block elevated


parts and discharge capacitors as well


as residual air, gas, steam and water


pressure. Use properly rated noncontact voltage testers to ensure that


circuits are deenergized.


7) Verify lockout by first confirming that no employees are exposed to


danger, then test machine controls to


confirm a zero-energy state.


Releasing LOTO: An Important


& Specific Process



cedures are scheduled. This prevents


them fiom inadvertently interfering or


unnecessarily continuing to operate


their machines with adverse effects.


?Consider multiple energy


sources. When reviewing lockout


procedures for the equipment to be serviced, workers should identify whether


energy sources other than electricity are


present; if so, they must be controlled.


Lockout procedure placards should be


attached to all machinery; these list


the steps required to isolate all energy


sources and include images to identify the location of all isolation points.


Workers who rely solely on familiarity


with equipment are at risk since they


could inadvertently miss a step in the


equipment isolation process.


?Remember that electrical energy


acts and reacts differently than other


types of energy. When a button is


pushed or an electrical switch is thrown,


the power goes on or off instantly. Other types of energy do not react in this


manner. For example, kinetic energy


slowly and gradually keeps gears turning, belts moving and rotors rotating.


Engines and components need time to


cool down, so even though a machine is


turned off, it may not be safe to proceed


with an LOTO procedure.


With a worker fiiendly approach


and understanding, injuries, damaged


equipment and MSHA fines can be



avoided. The following seven steps can


help avoid dangerous omissions.


1) Prepare for shutdown. Note the


types, magnitude and hazards of fhe


energy that must be controlled and


how they need to be isolated. Identify all energy sources that need to be


locked out, the location of each lockouf


point and the lockout devices required.


Be familiar with electrical circuits before


performing elecfrical work and ask for


help or consult a wiring diagram/schematic.


2) Notify all affected employees that


shutdown and LOTO are beginning.


Provide an audible or visible warning


system and ensure that there is safe


access to all working areas.


3) Shut down the machine or equipment. Turn off energy points in the


proper sequence to prevent equipment


damage and to avoid creating additional hazards. Also, wear appropriate


PPE, including electrically rated gloves,


hard hat and eye protection. As noted,


lockout procedure placards should be


attached to all equipment.


4) Isolate all energy sources, including electric, hydraulic, mechanical and


pneumatic, before commencing work.


This is achieved by deactivating valves


and by disconnecting switches and circuit breakers as outlined in the lockout




5) Lock out by applying locks and



When maintenance or repair is complete, powering up equipment calls for


several steps to ensure worker safety


and prevent equipment damage. Two


tasks should be performed before any


LOTO devices are removed.


1) Check machines and equipment.


Authorized employees must replace


machine guards, and remove tools and


nonessential items fiom the work area.


Block devices that were inserted also


need to be removed, although in some


cases the machine may need to be


restarted first.


2) Make sure the work area is clear


and that workers are in a safe place


away fiom the machines or equipment.


Once those steps are complete,


LOTO release can continue:


3) Remove LOTO devices. This task


should only be performed by the employee who applied the devices.


4) Before resfarting any machine or


equipment, notify all affected employees that the LOTO devices have been




5) Restore energy to the machine. As


noted, this step may require cautiously


reenergizing some machines to remove


blocking devices. Additional authorized


employee assistance may be needed to


reenergize certain sections or parts of


the equipment.


A focused, multifaceted approach to


LOTO can make any mining operation




Matt Dudgeon is the global product manager,


life safety, at Master Lock Co. LLC (www in Milwaukee, Wl. He can be














Copyright of Professional Safety is the property of American Society of Safety Engineers and


its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the


copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email


articles for individual use.




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