I need an article critique about the file I added with the following standards:
The Article Critique must include the following components:
? a brief introduction to the article,
? a summary and analysis of the key points in the article,
? whether or not the article supports the concepts as presented in the textbook, and
? a summary of the article's conclusions and your own opinions.
Your Article Critique must be at least one page in length, double spaced. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.
in APA style?
Lockout/Tagout in Mining
Seven Tips for Worker Safety
By Matt Dudgeon
heck the job description of
a typical mine safety manager and you will find a long list of
responsibilifies. Among them are
developing and directing facilit}'wide safety programs such as an
effecfive lockout/tagout (LOTO)
program. These critical funcfions
require procedure development and
employee training, as well a program to manage dozens, hundreds
or even thousands of padlocks and
lockout devices within a facility.
Since 1990, MSHA has classified at
least 75 fatal and 1,850 nonfatal incidents in the mining industry as electrical. Many could have been prevented
had the circuits been locked, grounded
and tagged before maintenance was
A company may purchase lockout padlocks and devices for myriad
applicafions, so it must ensure that
employees are appropriately trained to
perform required lockout procedures.
Authorized workers must know how to
properly isolate equipment to ensure
that hazardous energy is reduced to a
zero state and remains that way unfil
servicing is complete. Otherwise, the
risk of injury or death is imminent.
Efficient, Thorougli Training
MSHA regulations for both metal/
nonmetal and coal mining require locking and tagging electrical circuits before
performing maintenance on a circuit or
on the mechanical equipment supplied
by the circuit.
Several MSHA standards relate to
LOTO, depending on commodity:
?30 CFR 56/57.12016;
?30 CFR 56/57.12017;
?30 CFR 56/57.14105.
?30 CFR 77.404;
?30 CFR 77.500;
7 0 ProfessionalSafety
?30 CFR 77.501;
?30 CFR 77.704.
Training provided in accordance with
30 CFR Part 46 or Part 48 must cover
basic LOTO principles as well as taskspecific tasks that can include LOTO
procedures for each piece of equipment
that may be serviced or maintained.
MSHA has also incorporated the
LOTO standards into its Rules to Live
By campaign, under which violations
may incur specially assessed penalties.
Where does one start when implementing an LOTO program to reduce
the potential for future incidents? A
simple recommendation is to begin
LOTO can make
with general training for all workers
who will use or be affected by LOTO
within the work environment. Training should explain LOTO, why it is
needed, and LOTO do's and don'ts. An
employer should also provide machineand lockout-device-specific training.
MSHA allowsflexibilityin training
format, but the responsibility always
resides with the company.
Thorough training requires a
significant and focused time commitment that can tax many mining safety
managers due to their other responsibilities. Thus, safety consultants can be
a viable alternative. When considering
this route, a company should seek an
experienced provider who understands
facility-specific requirements, especially
because MSHA and OSHA standards
differ. If a full-service consultant develops the site's safety lockout procedures,
s/he will make an excellent training
provider as well.
One Padloci(, One Key Per Employee
To select the best safety padlock for
a facility, first consider the number of
employees who require safety padlocks to lockout energy sources. This
determines the number of key codes
the facility requires since each employee should have a unique key under
the premise of one lock, one key per
employee. This prevents workers from
inadvertently opening each other's
padlocks and introducing a potential
Select a padlock style that has
enough key codes to meet current
requirements as well as to expand to
meet future needs. Key codes for all
locks should be recorded and saved
under an assigned user ID. This key record can be referenced to confirm that
new key codes are always assigned to
safety locks purchased by a facility.
One excepfion to consider: Although
keyed-different padlocks are primarily
used for safety lockout, in some cases,
an employee may need several personal
padlocks. In this circumstance, the appropriate number of locks can be keyed
alike so the worker can use a single key
rather than fumbling with a ring full of
different keys. As long as the keys are
safely controlled, this should ensure
that the keyed-alike padlocks can only
be opened by the assigned employee.
Regardless of location used, LOTO
padlocks must be unique and visibly
different from padlocks used for general security purposes. Using different color models and styles also alerts
workers to LOTO procedures, which
helps to ensure compliance.
iVIajor issues & Seven Key Steps
Workplace realities, including those
at mining operations, indicate that
procedures in many facilities would
benefit greatly from more efficient
LOTO direcfion with machine-specific
instructions. The sheer volume and
diversity of equipment at a site add a
certain level of complexity to LOTO actions. Despite all efforts, oversights and
errors can result in injuries, equipment
damage or worse. But costly mishaps
can be prevented using a methodical
A seven-step LOTO process is outlined here, but three major issues must
always be considered:
?Alert affected workers. Employees
and contractors using equipment that
needs to be locked out must be aware
of and comply with LOTO procedures.
Miners operating ancillary and sequenfial production process equipment
should also be notified when machinery is locked out or when LOTO pro-
lockout devices to hold switches and
valves in the safe or off position. Secure
all power sources and confirm that each
person working on an electrical circuit
or system applies his/her personal lock
6) Release stored energy. Bleed off
pressure, drain all lines, block elevated
parts and discharge capacitors as well
as residual air, gas, steam and water
pressure. Use properly rated noncontact voltage testers to ensure that
circuits are deenergized.
7) Verify lockout by first confirming that no employees are exposed to
danger, then test machine controls to
confirm a zero-energy state.
Releasing LOTO: An Important
& Specific Process
cedures are scheduled. This prevents
them fiom inadvertently interfering or
unnecessarily continuing to operate
their machines with adverse effects.
?Consider multiple energy
sources. When reviewing lockout
procedures for the equipment to be serviced, workers should identify whether
energy sources other than electricity are
present; if so, they must be controlled.
Lockout procedure placards should be
attached to all machinery; these list
the steps required to isolate all energy
sources and include images to identify the location of all isolation points.
Workers who rely solely on familiarity
with equipment are at risk since they
could inadvertently miss a step in the
equipment isolation process.
?Remember that electrical energy
acts and reacts differently than other
types of energy. When a button is
pushed or an electrical switch is thrown,
the power goes on or off instantly. Other types of energy do not react in this
manner. For example, kinetic energy
slowly and gradually keeps gears turning, belts moving and rotors rotating.
Engines and components need time to
cool down, so even though a machine is
turned off, it may not be safe to proceed
with an LOTO procedure.
With a worker fiiendly approach
and understanding, injuries, damaged
equipment and MSHA fines can be
avoided. The following seven steps can
help avoid dangerous omissions.
1) Prepare for shutdown. Note the
types, magnitude and hazards of fhe
energy that must be controlled and
how they need to be isolated. Identify all energy sources that need to be
locked out, the location of each lockouf
point and the lockout devices required.
Be familiar with electrical circuits before
performing elecfrical work and ask for
help or consult a wiring diagram/schematic.
2) Notify all affected employees that
shutdown and LOTO are beginning.
Provide an audible or visible warning
system and ensure that there is safe
access to all working areas.
3) Shut down the machine or equipment. Turn off energy points in the
proper sequence to prevent equipment
damage and to avoid creating additional hazards. Also, wear appropriate
PPE, including electrically rated gloves,
hard hat and eye protection. As noted,
lockout procedure placards should be
attached to all equipment.
4) Isolate all energy sources, including electric, hydraulic, mechanical and
pneumatic, before commencing work.
This is achieved by deactivating valves
and by disconnecting switches and circuit breakers as outlined in the lockout
5) Lock out by applying locks and
When maintenance or repair is complete, powering up equipment calls for
several steps to ensure worker safety
and prevent equipment damage. Two
tasks should be performed before any
LOTO devices are removed.
1) Check machines and equipment.
Authorized employees must replace
machine guards, and remove tools and
nonessential items fiom the work area.
Block devices that were inserted also
need to be removed, although in some
cases the machine may need to be
2) Make sure the work area is clear
and that workers are in a safe place
away fiom the machines or equipment.
Once those steps are complete,
LOTO release can continue:
3) Remove LOTO devices. This task
should only be performed by the employee who applied the devices.
4) Before resfarting any machine or
equipment, notify all affected employees that the LOTO devices have been
5) Restore energy to the machine. As
noted, this step may require cautiously
reenergizing some machines to remove
blocking devices. Additional authorized
employee assistance may be needed to
reenergize certain sections or parts of
A focused, multifaceted approach to
LOTO can make any mining operation
Matt Dudgeon is the global product manager,
life safety, at Master Lock Co. LLC (www
.masterlock.com) in Milwaukee, Wl. He can be
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