Question Details

(Answered)-pick any topic or health issue discussed in this week content

?pick any topic or health issue discussed in this week content (power point). Share your thoughts and connect to any concepts of development in LDCs that we have discussed in this course.

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Development and Health



Learning Outcomes


? Explain and describe recent infectious


diseases epidemics in several developing




? Identify leading causes of death in the world


? Describe contributing factors to recent


Western African Ebola outbreak



Facts on Health Inequalities


? 36 year gap in life expectancy between countries


(World Health Organization data 2011)



? Child in Malawi live approximately 47 years


? Child in Japan approximately 83 years


? In Chad, every 5th child dies before age 5



? No biological or genetic reason for differences


in health but what about life opportunity?


? View interactive map of developing countries


infant mortality



Health Inequality


? A difference of the distribution of health


status or health dominants between different


population groups



Health Inequity


Unnecessary, avoidable , unjust and unfair health


between groups of people within countries and


between countries.


Example of between countries.


? Infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between


birth and one year of age ) is 2 per 1000 live births in


Iceland and over 120 per 1000 live births in Mozambique


? The lifetime risk of maternal death during or shortly after


pregnancy is only 1 to 17 400 in Sweden but its 1 in 8




Sources :World Health ? Social Determinants of Health





Some Measures of Health











Infant mortality rate


Maternal mortality rate


Death mortality rate


Leading Causes of death



The following slides provides some dates of


different mortality rates in the Third World.



Some Statistics


In 2009


? HIV ? 40% new HIV infection occurred in young adults of 15 to


24 years old


? Births ? 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old gave birth


every year, 11% of all births worldwide


Maternal Deaths in Developing Countries


99% of annual maternal deaths in the world






Source: World Health Organization








? Avian Influenza (H7N9 flu)


? Ebola Disease Virus (EDV)


? Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERSCoV)



Avian Influenza


(HPAI) A(H5N1)



? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1)


? Occurs mainly in birds and highly contagious among them


? 1996 first detected in China geese


? 1997 first detected in humans in Hong Kong, China pultry




? Since detected in poultry and world birds in more than 50


countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.


? Consider to endemic for


? Infects domestic poultry and other bird and animal species


? Normally do not cause disease in humans



Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)


? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)


? First reported in China, March




? WHO reported 132 human


infections with 44 deaths


? Limited spread occurred in from


person to person


? Potential for infection to come to


US via a traveler.



To read more click on link http://





Middle East Respiratory Syndrome




A viral respiratory illness new to humans


? Caused by a novel coronavirus (MER-CoV), same family of virsus


of common cold and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)


? In 2012 first reported in Saudi Arabia


? People develop severe acute respiratory illness, fever, cough


and shortness of breath


? 36% or reported patients with MERS died


? Virus doe NOT pass easily from person to person unless close


contact (i.e. unprotected care of patient)


? Countries with lab confirmed MERS cases


? Iran, Jordon, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, UAE, Yemen



? May 2104 Two (reported) cases in US



To read more click here



MERS-CoV Statistics



MERS-CoV Statistics



Ebola Disease Virus


? The first emergence of Ebola virus occurred in 1976 Yambuku, Democratic


Republic of Congo (formerly known as Zaire) in Western Africa. The name


Ebola comes from the Ebola River in Yambuku


? Cases presented malarial like symptoms of fever but included bloody


vomiting and diarrhea.


? Sporadic outbreaks in since


? By July 2014, approximately 1,400 cases occurred in Guinea, Liberia and


Sierra Leone and Nigeria


? 2014 Outbreak in Western Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea


? As of June 2, 2015, Guinea had a total of 3,223 confirmed cases and 2,429 deaths;


Sierra Leone 8,620 confirmed cases and 3,912 deaths; Liberia confirmed cases


3,151 and deaths 4, 806; and Nigeria confirmed cases 19 and 8 deaths.


? Other countries such as Italy, Senegal and Spain, each had one initial confirmed


case but no deaths.


? In Africa, the total deaths from EVD was 11,147 (CDC 2015).


Source: Center for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015 ?2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.? Retrieved June 3, 2015





Different Strains of Ebola virus


? The five historical incidences of Ebola


outbreaks while similar in transmission and


symptoms had distinct genetic differences


? There are five distinct species: Bundibugyo, Tai


Forest, Reston, Sudan and Zaire (World Health


Organization 2014).


Source World Health Organization. 2014. ?Ebola Strategy: Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease, Epidemics:


Preparedness, Alert, Control and Evaluation? Retrieved June 3, 2015


( PED_CED_2014.05_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1).



Ebola Timeline



Source: Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015. Outbreaks Chronology Ebola Virus Disease


Retrieved from



Some Contributing Factors to Outbreak in


Western Africa


? Political and Economical - Insufficient healthcare infrastructure and


healthcare funding


? Cultural beliefs practices (i.e. burial rituals)


? Social - Easy of traveling to neighboring countries


? Individual and groups - Lack of trust medical profession and




? Videos to watch


Ebola Conflict Guinea ? battle to change



Ebola ? A cultural Challenge





? Read the two (2) articles posted on Blackboard


? Eckert and Kohler 2014. Urbanization and Health


in Developing Countries- A System Review


? Fauci. 2014 Underscoring the Global Disparities in


Health Care Resources



? Then proceed to last Blog! Yay!!!




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