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(Answered)-pick any topic or health issue discussed in this week content


?pick any topic or health issue discussed in this week content (power point). Share your thoughts and connect to any concepts of development in LDCs that we have discussed in this course.

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Development and Health

 


 

Learning Outcomes

 

? Explain and describe recent infectious

 

diseases epidemics in several developing

 

countries

 

? Identify leading causes of death in the world

 

? Describe contributing factors to recent

 

Western African Ebola outbreak

 


 

Facts on Health Inequalities

 

? 36 year gap in life expectancy between countries

 

(World Health Organization data 2011)

 


 

? Child in Malawi live approximately 47 years

 

? Child in Japan approximately 83 years

 

? In Chad, every 5th child dies before age 5

 


 

? No biological or genetic reason for differences

 

in health but what about life opportunity?

 

? View interactive map of developing countries

 

infant mortality

 

http://www.indexmundi.com/map/?v=29

 


 

Health Inequality

 

? A difference of the distribution of health

 

status or health dominants between different

 

population groups

 


 

Health Inequity

 

Unnecessary, avoidable , unjust and unfair health

 

between groups of people within countries and

 

between countries.

 

Example of between countries.

 

? Infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between

 

birth and one year of age ) is 2 per 1000 live births in

 

Iceland and over 120 per 1000 live births in Mozambique

 

? The lifetime risk of maternal death during or shortly after

 

pregnancy is only 1 to 17 400 in Sweden but its 1 in 8

 

Afghanistan.

 

Sources :World Health ? Social Determinants of Health http://www.who.int/

 

social_determinants/thecommission/finalreport/key_concepts/en/

 


 

Some Measures of Health

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Infant mortality rate

 

Maternal mortality rate

 

Death mortality rate

 

Leading Causes of death

 


 

The following slides provides some dates of

 

different mortality rates in the Third World.

 


 

Some Statistics

 

In 2009

 

? HIV ? 40% new HIV infection occurred in young adults of 15 to

 

24 years old

 

? Births ? 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old gave birth

 

every year, 11% of all births worldwide

 

Maternal Deaths in Developing Countries

 

99% of annual maternal deaths in the world

 


 

?

 


 

Source: World Health Organization http://www.who.int/sdhconference/background/news/facts/en/

 


 

Source: http://bravenewworld.in/2014/01/31/present-and-future-health/

 


 

Outbreaks

 

? Avian Influenza (H7N9 flu)

 

? Ebola Disease Virus (EDV)

 

? Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERSCoV)

 


 

Avian Influenza

 

(HPAI) A(H5N1)

 


 

? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1)

 

? Occurs mainly in birds and highly contagious among them

 

? 1996 first detected in China geese

 

? 1997 first detected in humans in Hong Kong, China pultry

 

outbreak

 

? Since detected in poultry and world birds in more than 50

 

countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.

 

? Consider to endemic for

 

? Infects domestic poultry and other bird and animal species

 

? Normally do not cause disease in humans

 


 

Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)

 

? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)

 

? First reported in China, March

 

2013

 

? WHO reported 132 human

 

infections with 44 deaths

 

? Limited spread occurred in from

 

person to person

 

? Potential for infection to come to

 

US via a traveler.

 


 

To read more click on link http://

 

www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu

 

/h7n9-virus.htm

 


 

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

 

(MERS)

 

A viral respiratory illness new to humans

 

? Caused by a novel coronavirus (MER-CoV), same family of virsus

 

of common cold and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

 

? In 2012 first reported in Saudi Arabia

 

? People develop severe acute respiratory illness, fever, cough

 

and shortness of breath

 

? 36% or reported patients with MERS died

 

? Virus doe NOT pass easily from person to person unless close

 

contact (i.e. unprotected care of patient)

 

? Countries with lab confirmed MERS cases

 

? Iran, Jordon, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, UAE, Yemen

 


 

? May 2104 Two (reported) cases in US

 


 

To read more click here http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/

 


 

MERS-CoV Statistics

 


 

MERS-CoV Statistics

 


 

Ebola Disease Virus

 

? The first emergence of Ebola virus occurred in 1976 Yambuku, Democratic

 

Republic of Congo (formerly known as Zaire) in Western Africa. The name

 

Ebola comes from the Ebola River in Yambuku

 

? Cases presented malarial like symptoms of fever but included bloody

 

vomiting and diarrhea.

 

? Sporadic outbreaks in since

 

? By July 2014, approximately 1,400 cases occurred in Guinea, Liberia and

 

Sierra Leone and Nigeria

 

? 2014 Outbreak in Western Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea

 

? As of June 2, 2015, Guinea had a total of 3,223 confirmed cases and 2,429 deaths;

 

Sierra Leone 8,620 confirmed cases and 3,912 deaths; Liberia confirmed cases

 

3,151 and deaths 4, 806; and Nigeria confirmed cases 19 and 8 deaths.

 

? Other countries such as Italy, Senegal and Spain, each had one initial confirmed

 

case but no deaths.

 

? In Africa, the total deaths from EVD was 11,147 (CDC 2015).

 

Source: Center for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015 ?2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.? Retrieved June 3, 2015

 

(http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/).

 


 

Different Strains of Ebola virus

 

? The five historical incidences of Ebola

 

outbreaks while similar in transmission and

 

symptoms had distinct genetic differences

 

? There are five distinct species: Bundibugyo, Tai

 

Forest, Reston, Sudan and Zaire (World Health

 

Organization 2014).

 

Source World Health Organization. 2014. ?Ebola Strategy: Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease, Epidemics:

 

Preparedness, Alert, Control and Evaluation? Retrieved June 3, 2015

 

(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/130160/1/WHO_HSE_ PED_CED_2014.05_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1).

 


 

Ebola Timeline

 


 

Source: Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015. Outbreaks Chronology Ebola Virus Disease

 

Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/history/chronology.html

 


 

Some Contributing Factors to Outbreak in

 

Western Africa

 

? Political and Economical - Insufficient healthcare infrastructure and

 

healthcare funding

 

? Cultural beliefs practices (i.e. burial rituals)

 

? Social - Easy of traveling to neighboring countries

 

? Individual and groups - Lack of trust medical profession and

 

government

 

? Videos to watch

 

Ebola Conflict Guinea ? battle to change

 


 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MeloxHwdsQ

 


 

Ebola ? A cultural Challenge

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVW9Ilfh1mw

 


 

Next?

 

? Read the two (2) articles posted on Blackboard

 

? Eckert and Kohler 2014. Urbanization and Health

 

in Developing Countries- A System Review

 

? Fauci. 2014 Underscoring the Global Disparities in

 

Health Care Resources

 


 

? Then proceed to last Blog! Yay!!!

 


 

 


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