?pick any topic or health issue discussed in this week content (power point). Share your thoughts and connect to any concepts of development in LDCs that we have discussed in this course.
ASA style formet
Development and Health
? Explain and describe recent infectious
diseases epidemics in several developing
? Identify leading causes of death in the world
? Describe contributing factors to recent
Western African Ebola outbreak
Facts on Health Inequalities
? 36 year gap in life expectancy between countries
(World Health Organization data 2011)
? Child in Malawi live approximately 47 years
? Child in Japan approximately 83 years
? In Chad, every 5th child dies before age 5
? No biological or genetic reason for differences
in health but what about life opportunity?
? View interactive map of developing countries
? A difference of the distribution of health
status or health dominants between different
Unnecessary, avoidable , unjust and unfair health
between groups of people within countries and
Example of between countries.
? Infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between
birth and one year of age ) is 2 per 1000 live births in
Iceland and over 120 per 1000 live births in Mozambique
? The lifetime risk of maternal death during or shortly after
pregnancy is only 1 to 17 400 in Sweden but its 1 in 8
Sources :World Health ? Social Determinants of Health http://www.who.int/
Some Measures of Health
Infant mortality rate
Maternal mortality rate
Death mortality rate
Leading Causes of death
The following slides provides some dates of
different mortality rates in the Third World.
? HIV ? 40% new HIV infection occurred in young adults of 15 to
24 years old
? Births ? 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old gave birth
every year, 11% of all births worldwide
Maternal Deaths in Developing Countries
99% of annual maternal deaths in the world
Source: World Health Organization http://www.who.int/sdhconference/background/news/facts/en/
? Avian Influenza (H7N9 flu)
? Ebola Disease Virus (EDV)
? Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERSCoV)
? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1)
? Occurs mainly in birds and highly contagious among them
? 1996 first detected in China geese
? 1997 first detected in humans in Hong Kong, China pultry
? Since detected in poultry and world birds in more than 50
countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.
? Consider to endemic for
? Infects domestic poultry and other bird and animal species
? Normally do not cause disease in humans
Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)
? Avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9)
? First reported in China, March
? WHO reported 132 human
infections with 44 deaths
? Limited spread occurred in from
person to person
? Potential for infection to come to
US via a traveler.
To read more click on link http://
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
A viral respiratory illness new to humans
? Caused by a novel coronavirus (MER-CoV), same family of virsus
of common cold and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
? In 2012 first reported in Saudi Arabia
? People develop severe acute respiratory illness, fever, cough
and shortness of breath
? 36% or reported patients with MERS died
? Virus doe NOT pass easily from person to person unless close
contact (i.e. unprotected care of patient)
? Countries with lab confirmed MERS cases
? Iran, Jordon, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, UAE, Yemen
? May 2104 Two (reported) cases in US
To read more click here http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/
Ebola Disease Virus
? The first emergence of Ebola virus occurred in 1976 Yambuku, Democratic
Republic of Congo (formerly known as Zaire) in Western Africa. The name
Ebola comes from the Ebola River in Yambuku
? Cases presented malarial like symptoms of fever but included bloody
vomiting and diarrhea.
? Sporadic outbreaks in since
? By July 2014, approximately 1,400 cases occurred in Guinea, Liberia and
Sierra Leone and Nigeria
? 2014 Outbreak in Western Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea
? As of June 2, 2015, Guinea had a total of 3,223 confirmed cases and 2,429 deaths;
Sierra Leone 8,620 confirmed cases and 3,912 deaths; Liberia confirmed cases
3,151 and deaths 4, 806; and Nigeria confirmed cases 19 and 8 deaths.
? Other countries such as Italy, Senegal and Spain, each had one initial confirmed
case but no deaths.
? In Africa, the total deaths from EVD was 11,147 (CDC 2015).
Source: Center for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015 ?2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.? Retrieved June 3, 2015
Different Strains of Ebola virus
? The five historical incidences of Ebola
outbreaks while similar in transmission and
symptoms had distinct genetic differences
? There are five distinct species: Bundibugyo, Tai
Forest, Reston, Sudan and Zaire (World Health
Source World Health Organization. 2014. ?Ebola Strategy: Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease, Epidemics:
Preparedness, Alert, Control and Evaluation? Retrieved June 3, 2015
Source: Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention. 2015. Outbreaks Chronology Ebola Virus Disease
Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/history/chronology.html
Some Contributing Factors to Outbreak in
? Political and Economical - Insufficient healthcare infrastructure and
? Cultural beliefs practices (i.e. burial rituals)
? Social - Easy of traveling to neighboring countries
? Individual and groups - Lack of trust medical profession and
? Videos to watch
Ebola Conflict Guinea ? battle to change
Ebola ? A cultural Challenge
? Read the two (2) articles posted on Blackboard
? Eckert and Kohler 2014. Urbanization and Health
in Developing Countries- A System Review
? Fauci. 2014 Underscoring the Global Disparities in
Health Care Resources
? Then proceed to last Blog! Yay!!!
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